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M01. Land Ownership, Power and Agency in Urban History

Cities are always about land and territory. In cities today, sites are often perceived from an economic perspective, as an asset to be exploited or an investment to generate profit. Yet in the history of cities, land has been an instrument to further other kinds of interests. Proximity to port areas or sources of energy has been important for the establishment of industries and railway lines. Nationally important buildings have extended their symbolic importance to adjacent sites. In addition, situations of contested ownership and control over land and its use can be particularly revealing of processes of urban formation and change. Conflicts over boundaries of responsibility have taken various forms, both in Europe and worldwide, and left differing traces, depending on the historical period.

This session proposes to consider these issues over the long term. Pre-industrial land ownership boundaries (manors, church and municipal authorities etc.) may remain visible in parcellation patterns until well into modern times. With the industrial city came new instruments for planning and development and new forms of conflict: expropriation for public projects, juries for establishing land prices, the phenomenon of the”company town”. In the post-industrial city, port, warehouse & industrial areas have been vacated and new uses proposed, giving rise to conflicting interpretations of the place and role of industrial memory in our contemporary environment. Finally, in today’s "globalized” context, questions emerge regarding the impact of new international players on local property markets and development decisions, and ways that these effects can this be measured and evaluated.

The study of urban form, often based on analysis of cadastral documents, has developed intensely over the past half-century. We are interested in exploring the ways that more recent approaches, in terms of stakeholder interaction, or the sociology of professions for example, might enrich our understanding of the changing relations between land ownership, power relations, and urban form.

We welcome papers addressing these issues whether theoretically or through case studies. How have land ownership patterns oriented the location of urban activities? How have changing administrative and property lines affected urban growth?  How have property ownership patterns been marked by political changes (nationalization etc.) or wartime events? How have large institutions, whether public or private (universities...) shaped urban development through their property development strategies? With deindustrialization, how has ownership of industrial sites influenced the (re)development of the city? How has land ownership defined urban cultural heritage?

Keywords: Land Ownership; Power; Agency; Parcellation Patterns; Urban Form

Period: All Periods
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Anja Kervanto Nevanlinna (Finland) - University of Helsinki
Karen Bowie (France) - École Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Paris La Villette / UMR CNRS 3329 AUSSER AHTT

Accepted papers:

The gender of immovable property ownership in Late Medieval Brussels (1356-1460)
Andrea Bardyn

Design and development of new streets in late medieval Portuguese towns
Maria do Carmo Ribeiro, Arnaldo Sousa Melo

Investment Property and Urban Growth in Spanish Sicily: Palermo in the Sixteenth Century
Maurizio Vesco

Mapping the urban transformation processes of the “invasion conventuelle” in seventeenth-century Antwerp. The role of elite networks in the (re)territorialisation of the Counter-Reformation Church
Bert Timmermans

Institutional real estate holdings and urban power in 18th century Paris
Preston Martin Perluss

Battle at ports: power struggles of State and port concessionaires for control and utilization of the port areas in the Levant at the end of the nineteenth century
Ahmet Erdem Tozoglu

Land management in Shanghai (1843-1943) - A historical reconstruction of cadastres in Shanghai foreign settlements
Zhenyu Mou, Christian Henriot

Développer un centre d’affaire dans le centre-ville de Rome pendant le fascisme. La compagnie d’assurance et le régime
Fabien Mazenod

The housing scheme for the Socialist settlement of the Minsk tractor plant
Natallia Linitskaya

M02. The Senses and Urban Public Space

How do the senses and the public space of the city shape one another? In light of growing scholarly interest in the historical specificities of sensorial experiences in various times and places, this session invites reflection on the ways in which the construction of public space is fundamentally bound up to people’s bodily engagement with the urban environment. Sensing, the action of our eyes, ears, nose, mouth and skin is an intimate and personal experience, through which we navigate the world we inhabit. At the same time, sensing is an eminently public phenomenon, the meaning associated with different sights, smells and sounds governed by social and cultural context. How these sensory experiences, privately felt but publically mediated, inform ideas and decisions about the construction, use and symbolism of urban public space is the underlying question this panel will explore. By doing so, it will also reevaluate the notion of urban public space. In light of the recent engagement of historians with sociologists and geographers – such as Henri Lefebvre, David Harvey, Martina Löw or Yi-Fu Tuan – who stress the social construction of space, this session investigates the bodily and sensory practices involved in this process. Simply put, public space is the space in which one comes into physical contact with strangers. At the same time, starting with the ancient Greek agora, it is the birthplace of the public realm in a political sense. By examining the sensory dimension of urban public space, the session will put this connection between space, the body, the social, and the political into new perspective.

Specific topics to be examined might include:
- how are cities planned and designed in response to sensory stimuli, and in order to privilege certain sensorial experiences over others?
- who determines how shifting thresholds of tolerance for sensory stimuli affects the layout and organization of public space?
- how is the relationship between public space and the senses mediated by other lines of social demarcation including gender, class or ethnicity?
- who is excluded from or relegated to certain public spaces on the basis of sensorial norms? - how do distinctions between the private and public spaces of the city get blurred or transgressed through the senses?
- how is the function of public space as a political gathering place determined by its sensory organization?

While referencing the Greek agora implies a certain historical narrative about the rise (and fall) of European cities and their public spaces, the objective of this panel is to question, not reiterate, this premise. In keeping with the conference theme of “Cities in Europe, Cities in the World,” we therefore particularly welcome proposals that are global in scope or that approach these questions from a comparative or transnational perspective. In addition to a consideration of variations according to place, this panel seeks to examine how sensorial understandings of public space change through time. Accordingly, proposals addressing a variety of periods are welcome.

Keywords: Senses; Public space

Period: All Periods
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Nicolas Kenny (Canada) - Simon Fraser University, Vancouver
Daniel Morat (Germany) - Friedrich-Meinecke-Institut, Freie Universität Berlin
Maarten Walraven (United Kingdom) - University of Manchester

Accepted papers:

Designing disorder: Realising the ‘Pope-Burning Processions’ in late seventeenth-century London
Elaine Tierney

Sound politics: Acoustic space and social order in early-modern Zurich
Jan-Friedrich Missfelder

Sensing public disturbance: Sensory experiences of urban disturbances in eighteenth-century Copenhagen
Ulrik Langen

A body passes by: The flâneur and the senses in nineteenth-century London and Paris
Estelle Murail

Low senses in negotiation: 'European Progress' and 'Asian Barbarity' in sanitary discourse of the late Russian Empire
Maria Pirogovskaya

Santiago du Chili 1910-2010: Comment l’étude des ambiances rend compte de ce siècle de rénovations urbaines
Ximena Arizaga

“You've never seen anything like it”: Multiplexes, shopping malls and sensory overwhelm
Lauren Anne Piko

Walking, feeling, talking: Experiencing public space in Athens's historical center
Dimitra Kanellopoulou

M03. Feeding the City – Urban Agriculture and Food Trade

Sufficient supply of food is a universal precondition for sustainable cities. Today we see an increasing interest in urban farming in the western world based on environmental sustainability, and for several decades urban agriculture has been a strategy of food security for people in poor cities in the global south. Historical research (see for instance Clark 2009, Elkjær 2008, Eliasen & Ersland 1996) has pointed to a considerable rurality – including cultivation of arable fields and vegetable gardens, as well as livestock keeping – in historical towns and cities worldwide. Furthermore, research has indicated that significant volumes of food could be produced on urban land managed by townspeople. In addition, urban food trade, where farmers and trading networks brought provisions to urban markets, were essential for feeding an urban area. But, our understanding of food security in historical cities and rural-urban food trade, needs to be related to the fact that also towns and cities could be food producers. With the industrial revolution and new transportation techniques made available, the prerequisites for urban agriculture as well as for food trade changed considerably.

This session aims to achieve a better understanding on how food provision historically has been secured and managed in towns and cities in Europe and worldwide in a long term perspective. The main questions this session seek to answer is how urban food markets were linked, not only to rural hinterland but also to urban cultivation, and how did historical agriculture function within towns and cities?

We welcome papers investigating intra-urban food provision as well as food related linkages between rural and urban areas. Potential themes include management and organisation of agriculture within towns and cities in Europe and worldwide, and the role of rural-urban food trade. We especially encourage papers that take the perspective of individual people concerning these themes. Chronological and geographical comparisons, as well as case studies on these matters are welcome. We particularly encourage papers studying these aspects in the early modern period (medieval – mid-19th century), and welcome also papers addressing theses issues after the ‘transportation revolution’ (i.e. late 19th and 20th centuries), for interesting comparisons over time.

Keywords: Urban Agriculture; Grain; Transports; Food trade; Food provision

Period: All Periods
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Mats Berglund (Sweden) - Institute of Urban History, Stockholm University
Annika Björklund (Sweden) - National Archives, Stockholm

Accepted papers:

Could residents of Polish small towns actually be considered farmers?
Piotr Miodunka

Early modern food policing
Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

Feeding rome: food, architecture, and urbanism during fascist Italy
Ruth W Lo

Feeding the city of Jönköping. Tracing lokal spezialisation in the city-toll accounts 1623
Ådel Vestbö Franzén

Feeding the city, feeding the stronghold. Problems and conflicts around the providing of food for the city/stronghold of Kraków during World War I
Bartosz Karol Ogórek

Food Management in Bijapur City during Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century
Kiran Sampat Jadhav

Food-provisioning in the Modern Age Viseu (16th to 18th centuries)
Liliana Andrade Castilho

Mapping Lisbon urban agriculture (1898-1911)
Teresa M Marat-Mendes, Patrícia Bento d'Almeida, Joana Mourão, Samuel Niza, Daniela Ferreira

The struggle for agrarian resources in Danish towns in the 16th-19th centuries
Jørgen Mikkelsen

M04. Imagining the City: Virtual Heritage Visualisation and Historical Research

In recent years there has been an increasing interest in Virtual Heritage Visualisation (VHV). This interdisciplinary field has transformed our understanding of architectural, archaeological and urban historical research. Since its pioneering break-through in the mid-1990s VHV has evolved considerably in many aspects (i.e., extensive use of laser scanning for surviving buildings, urban areas and objects) and in 2009 another milestone was achieved with the publication of the London Charter 2.0. This Charter establishes a theoretical and practical framework for the discipline, and it is crucially important for digital reconstruction/re-creation projects, the majority of its principles are inspired by heritage conservation theory.

Virtual Heritage Visualisation has proved to be a ground-breaking tool in the development of archaeological research, architectural and urban history investigation. Providing a fast developing new “territory” for historic research and urban planning, 3D applications and, particularly, virtual worlds technology enable the visualisation of imaginary, lost, or profoundly changed urban realities. A new laboratory in urban research is gaining shape, allowing the continuous examinations of historic sources, real-time interaction between technicians, researchers and users and the free exploring of the built model. Virtual re–creations have become both an instrument and an object of study. In short, the study of our architectural and urban past with the use of VHV has opened multiple possibilities for urban history research and display.

This panel seeks papers that examine the use of Virtual Heritage Visualisation applied especially for reconstruction/re-creation projects, although studies on projects that have applied technologies are welcome too. We are interested in papers that explore the possibilities, challenges and constraints of this interdisciplinary line of research. We especially welcome papers that deal (but are not necessarily limited to) the following topics:
• Historical accuracy and representation: the London Charter and the perception of speculative data by the audience. Challenges and possibilities;
• The transforming impact of VHV and the use of Virtual Reality in our understanding of the past: theories and practice;
• Kinetic aspects of virtual urban environment and the investigation in architectural and urban history;
• New narratives? VHV and new methodological and epistemological approaches in architectural and urban history research;
• VHV applied in Museum display and education;
• VHV and conservation projects on the built environment: conservation, display and research;
• The city in comparative perspective: virtual cities as a network of knowledge and debate on urban and architectural history.

Keywords: Virtual Urban Environment; Virtual Heritage Visualisation; Urban Research; London Charter

Period: All Periods
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Helena Murteira (Portugal) - Centre for Art History and Artistic Research (CHAIA), University of Évora
Laura Fernández-González (Spain) - University of Edinburgh, United-Kingdom

Accepted papers:

Edified forms and urban settings around 1700 in southern Portugal: visual overview and representation of modern urban and architectonical enduring marks at the town of Mourão (Évora)
Manuel FS Patrocinio

Historic centre of Porto (WH) - from historical research to (real) virtual heritage visualisation
Maria Leonor Botelho

Spatial representation of Vienna’s street-level environment—3D-ZPA (Zusammenhängende Parterre-Aufnahme)
Angelika Psenner

Project LXconventos: travelling through space and time in Lisbon’s religious buildings
João Gouveia, Fernando Branco, Armanda Rodrigues, Nuno Correia

"Swipe" the line: the use of City Engine and Geo-BIM models to evaluate distinct urban scenarios. The case-study of Lisbon downtown
Ana Paula Falcão, Sónia Ildefonso, Helena Rua, Rui Ricardo

Unreal Projects: Using Immersive Visualization to Learn about Distant and Historical Locales
Gabriela Campagnol, Mark Clayton, Stephen Caffey, Julian Kang, Kevin Glowacki

Representing historic urban landscapes. The city of Braga through VHV
Paulo Bernardes, Natália Botica, Manuela Martins, Luis Fontes, Fernanda Magalhães

Virtual cities as memoryscape: the case of Lisbon
Alexandra Gago Câmara, Paulo Simões Rodrigues

M05. Building Regulations and Urban Form: From Twelfth to Early-Nineteenth Century

Different kinds of urban and building regulations have existed throughout history. Today, there is a trend in Urban Planning that uses building rules based on design principles to define and shape the urban form (called form-based codes), which get its inspiration from traditional urbanism. But, unlike planning laws and building codes for the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries (which became much more widespread and scientific), the building regulations

in pre-industrial times remains a relatively unexplored historical subject. It’s true that these rules did not form a consistent planning code, since most of them were based on customs and social values that guided specific individual and community behaviour in relation to the built environment. However, in periods of great urban growth (like in medieval or modern periods) there was an increasing of rules established by central or local authorities in order to control the urban development.

So, what were these building regulations? What was the physical impact of these rules on the urban form?

The aim of this session is to identify, analyse and compare the building regulations and its effects on the urban form, in several towns and cities, from twelfth to early-nineteenth century. The geographical scope covers Europe, and includes the East and South of the Mediterranean regions, as well the American territories.

This session invites papers that deal with urban and building rules, whether they have had a prescriptive or a proscriptive nature. We are particularly interested in studies supported by written sources, such as: local customary laws, town council proceedings, legislative compilations, single norms, royal resolutions, real estate contracts,

building contracts, building licences, inspections registers, and judgement records. Several key issues can be: protection of private property; public health concerns; standard dimensions for buildings, streets, or others physical elements; relationship between building facades and the public realm; building disputes between neighbours. Procedural rules, mechanisms and the agents that gave the building permits can be addressed as well. Within this framework, we also encourage papers that explore the following themes: the influence of the Classic and

Late Antiquity building regulations in the medieval or modern rules; the copy or adaptation of rules from one place to another; the migration of the European rules to the new overseas colonies; the maintenance of ancient rules up to the Contemporary period; the range of performance-based rules in relation to top-down rules in the urban form.

Keywords: Europe; America; Building Rules; Urban Form

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern; 19th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Terry Slater (United Kingdom) - University of Birmingham
Sandra M.G. Pinto (Portugal) - CHAM - FCSH/NOVA-UAç

Accepted papers:

“Because of the beauty and respectability of a renowned and well-policed city”. Building regulations and urban development in Antwerp and Bruges, 1490-1670
Heidi Deneweth

Construction regulations in Athens, 1833-1864. Creating a Metropolis
Dora Monioudi-Gavala

Covenants and clauses: the contest between architectural authority and building autonomy in eighteenth-century Dublin
Conor Lucey

Planning the city with municipal building permits: Lyons in the late 16th - early 18th centuries / Le contrôle du bâti à Lyon, fondement de l’urbanisme municipal (XVIe - XVIIIe siècles)
Olivier Zeller

Regulated space. From reactive to proactive urban building codes in the Netherlands
Jaap Evert Abrahamse, Reinout Rutte

Regulation and urban form at the Azorean new towns
Antonieta Reis Leite

Risk, (in)security and the regulation of architecture in Nouvelle-France
Anne Bordeleau, Andre Belanger

The early 19th century building regulations of the Estonian-Livonian cities and their impact to the local urban space
Mart Siilivask

Towards the formation of urban regulations in the Ottoman context: the case of Istanbul
Isil Cokugras, Irem Gencer

M06. Urban Sanitation Before the Sanitary Revolution (Middle Ages-Early 19th Century)

The introduction of centralized sanitation in the nineteenth century city, in its most advanced form combining the distribution of piped drinking water to individual households and the water-carriage of waste using a piped sewerage system, fundamentally altered the relationship of western urban society with its natural environment. Following path-breaking research by Martin Melosi, Joel Tarr and others the impact of this sanitary revolution, both regarding technological path-dependency, the interconnecting of urban households through technological networks, the commodification of natural resources, the externalization of environmental problems and social inequalities in access to environmental services have been elaborated both by environmental historians, and scholars in the field of Science and Technology Studies and Actor/Network Theory. Whereas the pre-modern period had longtime been regarded as a pre-paradigm period with regard to urban sanitation (Lewis Mumford), there is an increasing tendency to point at important changes in environmental attitudes and practices already in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. In this session we aim to transpose the essential questions on technology and nature released by the debate on the ‘sanitary revolution’ to the study of drinking water supply and wastewater removal in the entire period of pre-modern European urbanisation, from the Middle Ages to 1850. When and why large technological systems were introduced to ensure drinking water supply and wastewater removal? Which degree of technological path dependency was generated by these systems? Did pre-modern systems also externalize part of the environmental cost of clean water to specific groups within or beyond urban society, as well as to future generations? To what extent scientific and intellectual transformations, like the gradual ‘disenchantment’ of nature inspired new technological solutions? Do we see a gradual decrease in the physical contact with water, as well as an increasing commodification of water? To what extent the urban population was intentionally or unintentionally governed through pre-modern drinking water and wastewater-systems. Did such systems engender new types of social relations and destroy others?  Can we conceive these systems as intentional or unintentional instruments of power, through which urban populations were governed? By bringing together papers on different parts of urban Europe throughout the pre-modern period, a fundamental re-appreciation of pre-modern urban sanitation throughout Europe will become possible.

Keywords: Urban Environment; Sanitation; Urban Water; Technological Systems

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern; 19th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Tim Soens (Belgium) - Centre for Urban History
Dolly Jørgensen (Sweden) - Umeå University

Accepted papers:

Des goûts et des couleurs: les eaux de Paris 1770-1830
Andre Guillerme

Entre technique et politique: les adductions d’eau dans les capitales provinciales en France du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle
Patrick Fournier

From common resource to favour for the poor? Public water points before and after the implementation of the Antwerp waterworks (18th-19th centuries)
Ellen Janssens

London’s private water supply: development, expansion, and consequences, ca. 1600-1800
Carry van Lieshout

Pollution, pipes, and population
Roberta J. Magnusson

The installation, maintenance and regulation of ‘sewers’ in sixteenth and seventeenth century British towns
Leona Jayne Skelton

The water supply of medieval and early modern Dublin: municipal benevolence or instrument of power?
Margaret Murphy

Water supply and sewerage in the Portuguese city of the Late Middle Ages. The example of Coimbra
Maria Amélia Álvaro de Campos

M07 Urban Ideologies and Political Conflict (12th-18th Centuries)

The historiography of rebellions and revolts traditionally focuses on violence. Destruction, war, and physical injury are the central elements in most of the historical writings on medieval uproar and early modern insurrection. In this session, however, we want to concentrate on the thoughts and beliefs that motivated town dwellers to take up arms. Therefore, this session focuses on rebellious thoughts and subversive ideas. What were the beliefs of urban rebels, and how did they challenge the political opinion of the rulers of towns?

To understand more fully the political thoughts of insurgents, we would encourage speakers to compare the ideologies of rebels and rulers. Can a distinction be made between the ideas of aldermen and mayors on the one side, and those who contested their power on the other? Or did both parties use similar arguments to legitimize, respectively, their rule and revolts? Comparison can also be made to revolts in the countryside. Can we distinguish between rural and urban ideologies? What is specific to urban political thought? Last, but not least, we would like papers in our session to compare cities and periods. Of course, case-studies of a particular city are very welcome, but we would encourage speakers to compare their findings to those on other cities (in Europe, or the Middle East in particular). We suggest that rebellious ideologies in medieval and early modern Europe were based on common patterns of thought. Rebels used similar arguments in revolts in different parts of Europe and at different points of time to justify their actions. How was this possible? Did rebels communicate across city walls? Did shared religious beliefs in a Europe defined by Latin Christendom inspire rebels to contest the decisions of rulers? Who were the agents of cultural transmission of rebellious ideas? What role did memory play in the maintenance of common traditions of revolt?

In particular, papers can focus on:
- ‘rebellious writing’: pamphlets, libels, graffiti, learned discourse
- oral subversion, such as shouts, slogans, insults
- seditious poetry: the chronicles, plays, poems (and their performance) of urban rebels
- (distorted) memories about past revolts, which justified new rebellions
- formal ‘political contracts’ between rulers and citizens, such as the privileges granted to rebellious towns
- agents of cultural transmission of subversive ideas: merchants, scholars, travelers, clerics, booksellers.


Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Jelle Haemers (Belgium) - University of Leuven
Jesús Solórzano Telechea (Spain) - University of Cantabria

Accepted pepers:

Introduction: ideology and rebellion in late medieval and early modern Europe
Jelle Haemers

The politics of speech in English towns, 1300-1520
Christian Liddy

Artisan languages in the later medieval Low Countries
Jan Dumolyn

The ‘Blijde Inkomsten’ of Brabant (14th-15th centuries): urban political thought on ducal authority and the ideology of government
Valerie Vrancken

Complaints and political discourses of the commons and the oligarchy in the Later Midlle Ages: the example of San Vicente de la Barquera (1493-1498)
Fernando Martín Pérez

The Grand Atour of Metz: Denouncing the past, Shaping the future during an urban revolt
Dominique Adrian

Factions in Geneva on the eve of the Reformation: ideology and political languages
Mathieu Caesar

Subversion in the Serenissima. Popular dissent and political conflict in early modern Venice
Maartje van Gelder

Justifying urban revolt in the later middle ages: Latin Europe and the Islamic world compared
Patrick Lantschner

Conclusions: urban ideologies and political conflict (12th-18th centuries)
Jesus Angel Solórzano Telechea

M08. Charity, Poor Relief and the Sense of Community, ca. 1200-1900

Charity, mutual aid and poor relief have all figured prominently in research on late medieval and early modern cities. Major transformations have been exposed, for the sixteenth century and the end of the ancien régime in particular. These transformations have moreover been attributed to a wide variety of, often interrelated, causal factors. Specifically, proletarianization and the disciplining of workforce, religious transformations such as the Reformation, confessionalization and secularization, and state formation and the growing importance of market forces are all considered to have transformed the structures, institutions and practices of charity, mutual assistance and poor relief. However, while all these factors potentially affect the mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion involved, the community building capacity has seldom been tackled head on.

Practices of charity and alms giving as well as the organization of poor relief or mutual assistance always imply a sense of ‘community’. All assistance and relief was in one way or another reserved for a specific group considered ‘deserving’, be that co-religionists, fellow townsmen, members of a particular guild, confraternity or quarter, etc. When allocating aid or relief to one specific group, the inside group is tightened as well as its boundaries sharpened to outsiders. But, while the mechanism as such may be virtually universal, the actual definition and delineation of communities changed considerably over time and across regions and contexts. This is particularly relevant for cities, which may up to a certain degree be considered a single community from the perspective of public aid, but in reality consisted of different communities within (and indeed across) the city.

This session wants to gain deeper insight in the community building capacities and the related exclusionary mechanisms of charity, mutual aid and poor relief mechanisms in late medieval and early modern cities. Which communities were implied or shaped by the organization of public assistance and poor relief, who had access to relief systems, and what community thereby served as a frame of reference? Did the boundaries created coincide with the city, a parish, families or urban ‘corpora’ such as guilds and fraternities? Did poor relief strengthen the idea of a civic community or rather a confessional one? And last but not least: how did this change in the long run and why?

We welcome case studies cases from all over Europe and beyond, so as to get a grip on both long term transformations and a wide variety of contextual factors.

Keywords: Poor Relief; Community

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern; 19th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Hadewijch Masure (Belgium) - University of Antwerp, Centre for Urban History
Steven King (United Kingdom) - University of Leicester, Centre for Medical Humanities

Accepted papers:

Poor relief and community building in the Southern Low Countries, c. 1300-1600
Hadewijch Masure

Renaissance hospitals and the city: the case of the thermal hospital of Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (Portugal, 1485-1580)
Lisbeth Oliveira Rodrigues

Plague and the poor in an early modern city: the case of Aberdeen in the 1540s
Karen Jillings

A hospital for a neighbourhood? Small urban hospitals in Southern Brabant (14th-15th century)
Thibault Jacobs

Charity and neighbourly communities among the guild of Late Medieval Ghent
Laura Crombie

Deriving patterns of inclusion and exclusion from court proceedings. Legal aid to the poor as a form of charity in eighteenth-century Leiden
Griet Vermeesch

Multiple identities: the rising of a mutual aid network across 19th century Italian cities
Omar Mazzotti

M09. The Uses of Justice in Cities: a Comparative and Global Approach, 1300-1800

The administration of justice was one of the most important tasks of early modern urban governments. However, early modern judicial structures were as much shaped by the supply of governments and rules as by the demand of those who used justice. From the late medieval period onwards towns and cities attracted people because judicial protection was offered through laws and legislation, and urban populations could use various civil and criminal courts to settle conflicts or to deal with violence, maltreatment or insults. Cities provided instruments to settle conflicts through civil and criminal courts, and also through dispute settlement by corporate and neighborhood associations and ecclesiastical organizations.

Although a lot of valuable work has been done regarding the supply-side of the administration of justice, much less is known about the opportunities, motives, and chances of those demanding justice in pre-modern towns. The concept of ‘the uses of justice’ explores the various ways in which actors had access to various legal procedures and to what extent they made use of either formal or informal legal institutions so as to settle differences and to sue criminal offenses. By considering this topic in a geographically and chronologically comparative perspective, this session aims to contribute to our understanding of the place of formal and informal conflict arbitration in pre-industrial urban societies.

This session aims to explore the theme: In what ways did people make use of justice in the city?

We are interested in questions such as:
• What opportunities did cities offer regarding judicial protection and conflict regulation?
• Can we distinguish patterns in various regions (within Europe and globally) regarding the extent to which people had access to justice?
• Can we distinguish patterns in the ways in which men and women, different social-economic groups and migrants made use of particular judicial services?
• How did the uses of justice have an impact on the supply of juridical infrastructures?

This session encourages a wide range of contributions, bringing together scholars from various fields and disciplines, such as social and economic history, criminology and legal studies.

Keywords: Justice; Courts; Comparative; Global

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Manon van der Heijden (Netherlands) - University of Leiden
Griet Vermeesch (Belgium) - Vrije Universiteit Brussels
Lynn Hollen Lees (USA) - University of Pennsylvania

Accepted papers:

Access to justice: improved or barred by professionalization? (County of Flanders – Early Modern Era)
Georges G.G.M.M. Martyn

Between the Plantation and the States General: the revisions court as part of Paramaribo's legal system
Karwan Jalal Fatah-Black

Illegitimate children. Comparative perspectives on social control of extramarital births in Germany and Holland, 1600-1800
Ariadne Schmidt, Jeannette Kamp

Justice in exile: the lost Flemings of 1351 and the Colchester Borough Courts
Bart Lambert, Milan Pajic

Le choix de la justice. Interaction sociale et autonomie dans la justice française d'Ancien Régime
Hervé Piant

No Mere Gambit: Resolving Conflicts through the Court in the sixteenth-century Freiberg
John Jordan

The Portuguese justice in building disputes: agents, rules, procedures (12th to mid-19th centuries)
Sandra M.G. Pinto

The uses of justice in cities 1600-1900
Manon van der Heijden

Town and Village Before the Court. Judicial Practice in the Mirror of Juridical Protocol of the Town Council of Braşov, 1558-1580
Julia Derzsi

M10. Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance in European Cities (Med/EM)

Aux derniers siècles du Moyen Age, les monarchies, les principautés et les villes se dotent progressivement d’un système fiscal, entendu comme un ensemble de prélèvements qui se combinent pour que nulle source de richesse n’échappe à la ponction. L’impôt d’abord occasionnel et improvisé devient peu à peu régulier, ses modalités de perception se précisent en même temps que s’organise une administration financière et que se mettent en place des règles de gestion plus ou moins cohérentes. Dès qu'une société organise un système cohérent et centralisé de prélèvement pour elle-même, les mécanismes d'évitements apparaissent.

Nous proposons d’étudier dans une perspective comparatiste comment et dans quelle mesure les ressources des villes européennes étaient diminuées, d’une part, par la fraude fiscale qui est le détournement « illégal » d'un système fiscal afin de ne pas contribuer aux charges publiques et, d’autre part, par l’évasion fiscale qui consiste en l'utilisation « légale » de failles du système fiscal afin de réduire le montant de l’imposition

Sujets potentiellement abordés:
- la fraude des officiers des finances et les différents procédés qu’ils utilisent, connus que lorsque la fraude est découverte: vols, détournements, inexactitudes dans le calcul, recettes omises, dépenses grossies, prestations majorées avec la complicité de fournisseurs intéressés à la fraude, utilisation à leur profit de fonds collectés, corruption, trafic des assignations, prévarication: de la simple complicité avec les fraudeurs au trafic d’influence lors des adjudications.
- les stratégies de détournement et d’évasion des contribuables favorisées par la faiblesse administrative et par la complexité des régimes fiscaux qui permettaient aux contribuables de ruser avec le fisc et de dissimuler l'état de leur fortune ou de leurs ventes: fausses déclarations, entrée illicite dans des groupes d’exemptés:
- la fraude et l’évasion fiscales des villes elles-mêmes par rapport au prince qui prend des formes variées: révision des feux, refus ou retard de paiement, établissement de forfaits...
- à propos des divers types de fraude, il conviendra de passer en revue les moyens de lutte auxquels pouvait recourir le fisc à commencer par l’arsenal législatif anti-fraude, ainsi que les limites de leur efficacité. La sanction de la fraude et la question de la rémission devront également être abordées.
- Faute de pouvoir évaluer l’ampleur de la fraude, on pourra s’interroger sur la façon dont la fraude des officiers était perçue par les autorités urbaines ou princières: mal inévitable ? Profiter d'une parcelle du pouvoir pour s'enrichir étai

Keywords: Fraude; Fiscalité; Europe

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Denis Menjot (France) - Université de Lyon 2
Florent Garnier (France) - Université de Clermont / CSIC
Pere Verdés (Spain) - Institut Milà y Fontanals, Barcelone

Accepted papers:

Quand les jongleurs disent la fraude fiscale (Arras, XIIIe siècle)
Claire Billen

Frauder, combattre, punir: la ville de Lisbonne face à l’impôt (XIVe-XVe siècles)
Amélia Aguiar Andrade, Mário Sérgio Farelo, Gonçalo Silva

¿Quién defrauda a quién? las comunidades mudéjares granadinas frente a la presión fiscal castellana: la construcción del sistema fiscal en el Reino de Granada bajo el Reinado de los Reyes Católicos
Ágata Ortega Cera

The Insiders: Bonnore Olivier, Voppe Pieterszone and the War on Urban Fiscal Fraud in the Burgundian Low Countries
Jonas Braekevelt, Bart Lambert

Investigación y denuncia del fraude fiscal en la administración real y municipal del reino de Navarra (Siglos XIII-XIV)
Íñigo Mugueta

La gestión de las rentas reales en el reino de Galicia a fines del siglo XV: algunos ejemplos de fraude y evasión fiscal
Amparo Rubio Martínez

La fraude fiscale dans les derniers siècles du Moyen Age: de la théorie à la pratique
Lydwine Scordia

Tax evasion and tax avoidance in the cities of the kingdom of Naples (XVI-XVII centuries)
Alessandra Bulgarelli

La lutte contre la fraude en Haute-Guyenne au XVIIIe siècle: une histoire soumise aux rivalités institutionnelles
Christine Mengès-Le Pape

Divertir les deniers publics dans les villes françaises: étude sur le péculat d’après la doctrine juridique du XVIIIe siècle
Manon Nunzia Manuelle Séréni

Lyon, paradis fiscal? (XVIIe-XVIIIe siècles)
Olivier Zeller

L'evasion fiscale dans le royaume de Naples pendant la monarchie angevine
Serena Morelli

M11. The Court and Urban Sociability in Europe, c. 1400-1917

Leading question: The interplay between the royal and imperial court and the town in urban sociability, urban forms of sociability, relating this to the longue durée.

Key issues and scientific relevance:
Royal and imperial courts have played a key role in European urban tissue from the Middle Ages. From Italian, German or French royal and princely courts to the Russian imperial court in the early twentieth century, courts had an impact on urban life in Europe. In recent research, the multifold political, cultural, economic and social importance or courts have been stressed, and the proposed session aims to nuance the role of the courts in urban life, the meaning of the court for an urban sociability. The aim of the session is to reach a comparative European perspective on the topic; we endeavour to collect together contributions from different research traditions working on the history of public life.

The main intention of the session is to relativize the Habermasian distinction between representative and bourgeois publicity as well as Norbert Elias’ theory of the court as the main focus of the civilizing process. La cour et la ville, the court and the city were the focal points of the public life in the early modern Europe but in some cases also in the modern period. However, they were not closed and opposite entities but there was intense and multiform interaction between them. We aim to call for papers on following themes:
1) Court, city and the civilizing process: how did the urban and courtly civilizing practices shape each other and which were the mechanisms of their interaction.
2) The impact of courtly politeness on the codes of urban sociability and vice versa.
3) The changing public roles and images: how did the same persons take different social roles and masks on the courtly stage on the one hand and in the spheres of urban sociability on the other.
4) The comparative perspective: how did the interaction between courts and urban public institutions develop in the different parts of Europe.
5) The court and the city in the literary imagination and artistic representations.
6) How did the revolutionary periods transform the role of the court in the urban milieu.

Keywords: Court; Civilizing Process; Urban Sociability; Politeness; Civility

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern; 19th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Markku Kekäläinen (Finland) - University of Helsinki
Johanna Ilmakunnas (Finland) - University of Helsinki / University of Northampton (UK)
My Hällsing (Sweden) - Örebro University

Accepted papers:

Perception and representation of the Royal Authority during the reign of Juan II of Castile (1406-1454) throuh the itinerary of the Queen Consort
Diana Pelaz Flores

The late medieval Bruges Burgher’s Lodge as a locus of elite sociability between court and civic culture
Jelle De Rock

"Qui urbis huius secessum / aulico splendori / lubens anteposuit“: objects on the move between city and court (Basle, 16th and 17th centuries)
Michael Schaffner

Frédéric Marselaer, un homme de la ville et fin connaisseur de la Cour?
Nathalie Roland

A Cultural crossroads between the court and the city. The case of the Royal Academy of Turin, Capital of the Savoyard State
Paolo Cornaglia, Paola Bianchi

City and Civiltà in Early Modern Neapolitan Political Thought
Adriana Luna-Fabritius

“For the sweet intercourse of a few chosen friends” urban sociability among the court elite in late 18th century Copenhagen
Kristine Dyrmann

Fashioning Aristocracy: ‘Magnate Tailors’ in Fin-de-Siècle Budapest
Zsuzsa Sidó

M12. Sacred Spaces, Material Culture and Social Change in Western Europe (13th-17th Centuries)

To this day, relatively little is known about the functioning of religious spaces in late medieval European cities and how this changed in the Reformation and Counter-Reformation era. Yet, much suggests that the churches of the urban parishes and the various ecclesiastical institutions are important constituents of the socio-cultural organization of the medieval and post-medieval city. On the one hand, churches and churchyards were a cornerstone for urban community building. Together with markets, they formed the primary locus of the urban public sphere and collective religious experiences were closely linked to the ideology of the city as a spiritual community sanctioned by God. On the other hand, churches also functioned as the stage for individual actions that were charged with religious and social meaning, ranging from individual prayer over the establishment of a private altar or funerary monument to the disputes on the seating order during mass. Through a combination of about 7 historical and art historical papers, this session would contribute to the charting of both the complementarity and the tension between the use of church spaces for individual and communal enterprises in the cities of Western Europe.

During the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the European urban network formed the stage of far-reaching transformations, in which some cities rose and others declined, and in which opportunities for upward social mobility shifted from one urban group to another. The first aim of this session would be to assess how and to what extent those social dynamics were negotiated within the spatial setting of the urban church. Secondly, there is the equally important issue of continuities and discontinuities in the uses of sacral spaces in the Reformation and Counter-Reformation era, not only in the light of the theological discussions on the validity and functioning of ecclesiastical infrastructure, but also in relation to the changing conceptions about the social order in the Early Modern Era and the processes of inclusion and exclusion it engendered.

Both lines of enquiry would be pursued through the perspective of material culture studies. First, attention would go to “embodied piety,” that is, devotion as an individual experience that was mediated to physical objects (e.g. the lighting of candles, the kneeling for religious diptychs and statues). Secondly, special attention would go to commemorative monuments as attempts to imprint the public sphere in a durable manner (e.g. funerary monument)

Keyword: Material Culture; Urban Religious Life; Cultures of Remembrance; Social Mobility

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Frederik Buylaert (Belgium) - Vrije Universiteit Brussels
Koen Goudriaan (Netherlands) - Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam
Anne-Laure Van Bruaene (Belgium) - Ghent University

Accepted papers:

Embodied piety in the age of Iconoclasm. The case of Zoutleeuw
Ruben Suykerbuyk

Funerary Chapels and the Perpetuation of Individual Memory in Sacred Urban Spaces
Catarina Madureira Villamariz

Material Culture - Remembrance Culture in Late Medieval Transylvanian Towns
Mária Magdolna Lupescu

Participating in the Sacred - Personal Items as Votive Offerings
Jakub Wysmulek

Strategies of Memory in Medieval London
Christian Steer

The friars’ town: urban spaces and architectural arrangements in Late Medieval Italy
Silvia Beltramo

Towards a mapping of the family chapel in Counter-Reformation Antwerp. Elite-families and the role of commemorative space in processes of territorialization
Bert Timmermans

M13. Studying Urban Communities in Pre-Modern Europe: Connecting Theories and Methodologies

Towns and cities in medieval and early modern Europe were not unified, homogenous entities, but were comprised of numerous interwoven communities, just as cities are today. Yet how were these urban communities defined within pre-modern Europe? Urban communities are frequently regarded as having been defined by institutions and by shared interests, ranging from occupation to location of residence and even ethnicity. Yet did political and economic structures and institutions define community, or conversely, were those institutions and patterns a result of communal identities and practices? Therefore, did changing institutional and political forms of the early modern period result in social change, or were they more symptomatic of this occurring?

This session examines this interplay at the period of transition between medieval and modern periods to re-examine debates relating both to the emergence of ‘modern’ forms of association, and the perceived decline of ‘traditional community’. In recent years historians from throughout Europe have been revaluating these issues from both perspectives. While many have followed Henri Lefebvre’s concepts of space and place to examine the city itself as an influence upon communities, others have embraced Keith Wrightson’s questioning of whether the medieval city had ever been more ‘neighbourly’ than the early modern.

Historians have also employed new perspectives and methodologies to examine pre-modern urban life, focusing upon such questions as citizenship, neighbourhood, migration, the role of guilds and fraternities, religious organisation and difference, and household strategies. The availability of different sources and the difference in social and political forms throughout Europe will offer a host of perspectives and comparisons of the forms of urban sociability and organisation.

New methodologies within the Digital Humanities are particularly important in unlocking urban sources in new ways, including Social Network Analysis and Geographic Information Systems. Scholars are using these methodologies to unlock source materials for pre-modern urban Europe, which are often voluminous and otherwise difficult to interpret, while digitisation projects are enabling large-scale analysis on unprecedented scales. Yet these techniques have their pitfalls, not least in terms of steep learning curves and technical constraints framing the scope and design of research. Are scholars in danger of diverging between those led by theoretical frameworks, and those led by Digital Humanities methodologies?

This session aims to bringing together papers covering a wide range of European contexts, and conceptual and methodological approaches, and provoke discussion into the fundamental nature of urban society in this key period of change.

Keywords: Social Networks; Historical Geography; Digital Humanities; Solidarities; Neighbourhoods; Guilds; Parishes; Citizenship; Occupations; Economic Organisation

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Justin Colson (United Kingdom) - University of Exeter
Arie van Steensel (Netherlands) - Utrecht University

Accepted papers:

A silent witness? Recovering the landscapes of medieval towns through spatial technologies and material culture
Keith Lilley, Gareth Dean

Cartographier les communautés de voisins: indicateurs pour une topographie du voisinage à Bologne et Strasbourg (XIV-XVèmes siècles)
Colin Arnaud

Eucharistic Entities Beyond Social and Cultural History? Corpus Christi Confraternities in Vienna and Beyond (14th−16th Centuries)
Károly Goda

Family relationships in the building of the citizenry. The case of 15th century Barcelona
Carolina Obradors

John, William, John, Robert, John, John, John: The Role of Digital Prosopography in Reconstructing English Craft Communities
Dana Durkee

Outsiders and insiders in mid-seventeenth-century Turku: spatial practices and town court records
Riitta Laitinen

Poor boxes, guilds’ identities and community building in Antwerp and Brussels, 1300-1600
Hadewijch Masure, Bert De Munck

The Changing Meaning of Burgher Identity in Hungarian Urban Communities in the Transition from Early Modern to Modern Society: An Analysis of Database of Burghers
Arpad Toth, Gabor Czoch, Istvan Nemeth

M14. A Comparative History of Urban Neighbourhoods in the Western City (12th-16th centuries)

Depuis quelques années, le terme «quartiers» employé au pluriel a pris dans la langue française un sens bien particulier : il désigne des zones urbaines, situées dans les banlieues des grandes villes, que caractérisent un pourcentage élevé de populations immigrées, un fort taux de chômage comme une insécurité, réelle ou supposée. Ce dernier avatar sémantique du mot « quartier », qui succède à beaucoup d’autres, invite à la réflexion. Qu’est-ce qu’un quartier ? Quand et pourquoi le quartier apparaît-il dans la ville ? Quels noms porte-t-il et quelles sont les fonctions qui lui sont attribuées ? Quel sens cette circonscription a, ou n’a pas, pour ceux qui y vivent.

Cette session se propose de reprendre à nouveaux frais ce questionnement en l’appliquant aux grandes villes de l’Europe du Nord et de l’Europe du Sud durant ces siècles qui virent les quartiers apparaître et se transformer (XIIe-XVIe siècle). Il s’agit donc d’examiner en parallèle Nuremberg et Florence, Barcelone et Gand, Londres et Venise avec l’ambition de faire émerger des données précises susceptibles de nourrir une véritable analyse comparative. Quelques interrogations guideront une enquête qui cherchera à définir les rôles du quartier comme de mesurer, d’une ville à l’autre, si ce cadre administratif pouvait fonctionner comme un cadre de vie.
- géographie évolutive du quartier (date d’apparition et origine, découpages successifs, dimensions relatives, relations avec d’autres cadres telle la paroisse…)
- le quartier dans la ville (structures administratives, rôle dans l’exercice du gouvernement urbain, organisations militaires et/ou juridiques, fiscalité…) mais aussi niveau d’intégration du quartier dans la ville (on s’interrogera par exemple sur les formes de la participation aux fêtes urbaines ou sur l’organisation territoriale des confréries… et l’on s’intéressera de même aux relations de rivalité et d’antagonisme qui pouvaient exister entre la ville et le quartier).
- usages et pratiques du quartier (socio-topographie, relations au quartier selon des critères de genre, de statut, de fortune, solidarités, formes de domination locale, concurrence des autres espaces…).

Keywords: Society; Urbanism; Administration; Taxation; Culture; Daily Life

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Maria Asenjo-Gonzalez (Spain) - Univ. Complutense de Madrid
Elisabeth Crouzet-Pavan (France) - Université de Paris IV
Marc Boone (Belgium) - University of Ghent

Accepted papers:

The Building Blocks of Communities? Urban Neighbourhoods in Late-Medieval Europe
Arie van Steensel

Les quartiers (wards) du Londres Tudor: acteurs ou figurants du gouvernement urbain?
Olivier Spina

Immigration and urban neighborhoods in the Crown of Aragon (14th-15th centuries)
David Igual

Le "bourg neuf" de Santa Maria de Sienne. Naissance et mort d'un quartier pour 'cives novi' avant et après la Peste Noire
Gabriella Piccinni

Parochia, Vicus, Contrada… Quelques remarques sur la relation entre ‘paroisse’ et ‘quartier’ dans les villes de l’Occident médiéval (XIIe-XVIe siècle)
Pascal Vuillemin

Neighbourhoods, spatial organization and parishes: the case of late-medieval and early modern Ghent
Marc Boone, Annelies Somers

The Transformation of the Urban Space in XVth Century Medieval Castile: The case of Segovia and Valladolid
Maria Asenjo Gonzalez, Maria Ángeles Martin-Romera

Contrade et rioni à Rome (XII-XIVe siècles)
Jean-Claude Maire Vigueur

Les rioni de Rome au XVe siècle: vers une individualisation des quartiers
Cécile Troadec

L’organisation spatiale des villes chypriotes (XIIe-XVIe siècles): quartiers ethniques ou professionnels?
Philippe Trélat, Hesperia Iliadou

La Feria, or the Meaning and Function of Neighbourhood in Early Modern Seville
Igor Knezevic

Le quartier du marché, le quartier du souk. Une approche comparée du zoning économique au moyen âge
Peter Stabel

M15. Beyond Guilds: Work and Manufactures in the European Cities, 14th-18th centuries

Over the last decades, guilds have been at the core of the debate among historians, economists and social scientists. In particular, their impact for the medieval and early modern urban economies has been deeply questioned, thanks also to the interest for the rising success of the neo-institutional theories. However this renewal of interest has forgotten to take into consideration an important section of urban manufactures, i.e. the large groups of non-guild workers. Focusing especially on ‘guilds’, studies have partially understood the urban economies and, in particular, the urban manufactures. In order to better reconstruct these dynamics, it seems necessary to focus on the ‘free’, non-guild labour, which has its own relevance quantitatively and for the interaction with guilds and urban institutions.

This session aims to analyze the labour beyond guilds, with a particular reference to the manufactures and with a comparison between the European cities. In particular, the goals are:
1. To reconstruct the quantitative dimension of the free labour market, whereas sources are available
2. To build a taxonomy of the various forms of free labour, with the aim to develop further comparative analysis
3. To analyze the forms of conflict and cooperation between guild and non-guild labour institution, including also the designing of policies by urban authorities in order to control migrant and foreign workers
4. To consider the relations between town and country, with a focus on non-guild labour

We welcome papers which discuss one or more of these issues through original case-studies of individual cities or that adopt a comparative perspective. The final goal is to discover similitudes or differences among the various European urban economies and to offer a more comprehensive reconstruction of their evolution.

Keywords: Urban Economies; Labour Market; Europe; Manufactures; Medieval and Early Modern Period

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Luca Mocarelli (Italy) - University of Milan - Bicocca
Markus Cerman (Austria) - Inst. f. Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte der Universität Wien

Accepted papers:

Etre corporé ou ne pas l'être? L'industrie du verre dans les villes europénnes
Corine Maitte

Free and unfree: migration, labour and the guilds in late medieval London
Matthew Davies

Free labour proto-industries and guilds in the Central Balkans, 18th – beginning of the 19th century
Svetla Ianeva

Les travailleurs du bâtiment dans l’èpoque moderne: règles et liberté économique
Manuel Vaquero Pineiro

The decline of the guilds and their monopoly in English provincial towns
Masaru Yoneyama

Producing beyond guilds: Barcelone's indianine urban manufacture in the XVIII Century
Roberto Rossi

To welcome, to forbid or to look for compromise: the policy of the Flemish towns towards unprivileged drapery and migration in mid-14th – mid-15th century
Anna Mayzlish

Une présence insaisissable mais gênante. Artisans et marchands à Venise au XVIIIe siècle
Marco Schnyder

Work at the Border. The economy of the early modern Vicenza countryside (XVIth - early XIXth century)
Vianello Francesco

M16. Quand villes et forêts s’entrelacent. Lectures environnementales et dialectiques des relations entre sociétés urbain et ressources forestières

Les villes médiévales et modernes en tant que lieux de concentration démographique et industrielle ont exercé une forte pression sur les forêts. Plusieurs études ont discuté ces rapports d’appropriation en s’intéressant au processus de construction politique de cette mainmise, en insistant sur l’ampleur et la diversité des produits prélevés et en concluant souvent à la dégradation plus ou moins importante des espaces forestiers. Les villes d’Europe occidentale ne furent en effet jamais confrontées à une offre de bois supérieure à la demande, que du contraire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’insuffisance, voire la pénurie redoutée de ressources ligneuses ont constitué un danger qui incita les autorités municipales et les seigneurs urbains à étendre leur mainmise sur des forêts de plus en plus lointaines, à attirer certains flux commerciaux interrégionaux, voire ‘internationaux’ et à organiser les ressources disponibles sur le marché en vue d’en assurer une accessibilité optimale garante de l’ordre économique et de la paix sociale.

Dans ce dossier complexe, la perspective environnementale et donc la lecture dynamique et dialectique des données (historiques, archéologiques, dendrochronologiques, archéobotaniques) a été peu mises en œuvre. La session ambitionne dès lors d’illustrer le potentiel de cette approche pour l’étude des rapports villes-forêts et de réunir sur ce thème un panel d’experts permettant une perspective comparative.

Les organisateurs de la session privilégieront l’étude des interactions entre besoins urbains et évolutions environnementales. Comment les villes – diversement positionnées d’un point de vue géographique – ont-elles rencontré leurs besoins en ressources ligneuses et comment les milieux forestiers ont-ils évolué sous l’effet de cette demande? Répondre à cette question révèle en retour la complexité des interactions société-environnement. Comment les villes, avec leur cadre spécifique d’approvisionnement (édiction de règlements d’exploitation et de gestion forestière, organisation des marchés, politique de tonlieux, fiscalité, etc.), ont-elles ensuite réagi aux évolutions physiques des couverts forestiers auxquelles elles ont contribué (à la fois consciemment et inconsciemment)? Quel rôle jouèrent dans ces interactions les besoins souvent contradictoires en matériau bois (bois de chauffage, charbon de bois, bois d’œuvre et de charpente)? Enfin, comment ont été articulées par les autorités urbaines les différentes sources d’approvisionnement possibles (locales, interrégionales, ‘internationales’) et quels impacts, souhaités ou non, eurent-elles sur l’évolution environnementale des espaces forestiers ? L’échelle d’analyse adoptée pour appréhender ces thématiques peut être multiple, depuis l’étude des forêts dites « périurbaines » (approvisionnement surtout local ou régional) aux grands massifs forestiers à vocation plus ‘internationale’.

Keywords: Villes; Forêts; Environnement; Interactions; Ressources Ligneuses; Usages du Bois

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Paulo Charruadas (Belgium) - Université libre de Bruxelles (CReA-Patrimoine & Bru-Cités. Urbanisation et Société) & Université de Liège; CEA
Philippe Bernardi (Fance) - LaMOP; UMR 8589 CNRS-Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne
Chloé Deligne (Belgium) - Université libre de Bruxelles; Bru-Cités. Urbanisation et Société

Accepted papers:

“With its wood, wooden ceilings for royal buildings are constructed”: Tortosa as a center for the production and distribution of timber
Jacobo Vidal Franquet

Approvisionnement, gestion et utilisations du bois dans les villes médiévales portugaises
Maria do Carmo Ribeiro, Arnaldo Sousa Melo

Des forets pour la ville. Paysages forestiers et demande urbaine dans le Bassin Parisien, milieu XVIIe-milieu XIXe siècle
Jérôme Buridant

Le bois de construction à Grasse (Alpes-Maritimes, France) au Moyen Age et à l'époque Moderne: apports récents de l'archéologie préventive
Fabien Blanc, Jean-Louis Edouard, Stéphanie Wicha, Franck Sumera

Production et commerce du bois le long de la vallée de l’Adige entre le XIIIème et le XIVème siècle
Silvia Dandria

Shortage and change. Urban wood supply and forest ecosystems in early modern Regensburg
Martin Knoll

Spain's environment: the Forestry Policy and the Crown's Challenges
Elina Gugliuzzo

M17. Imagined and Imagining Cities: Conquest and Appropriation of Unknown Worlds (1400-1850)

Before Columbus reached America and Vasco da Gama arrived in Goa, Europeans cultivated an imaginary perception of the unknown world, beyond the borders of Europe. This world of fantasy, often fuelled by accurate information about the East and the West was a mechanism of transference and projection of known realities into an unknown world. The rumors about marvelous cities of gold to be found in America, the pious Christian towns of Prester John, the fantastic wonders of the cities in Persia or the astounding features of Chinese cities are but a few examples of this imaginary.

This session aims to analyze exam what was the role imaginary cities fulfill in the European expansion and consequent appropriation of territories outside of the European continent?

We hypothesize that this mechanism was as important as warfare, trading relations or diplomacy in the redefinitions of discontinued borders of many European states. During the Discoveries this mechanism of imaginary perception of urban environments was quickly confronted with reality. When facing the Aztec empire, the Christians of Ethiopia, the Persians or the Chinese, Europeans developed and adapted forms of urban development that they imposed upon the territories they dominated and imported foreign urban elements into many European cities. By imagining these new cities, they created spaces of encounter between different imaginary worlds and existing urban traditions. The Portuguese cities of the East, the Spanish cities in the West, the Dutch and English towns in the West Indies and in the East are but a few examples of an urban hybridism that served. In the same token, the symbols of exoticism in European architecture in Lisbon, Cadiz, Seville, Amsterdam, London, Bordeaux, Nantes, Copenhagen or Stockholm translate a tendency of mixing imaginary, imagined and already existing urban traditions and environments.

The final goal of this session is therefore to examine this intersection between imaginary and imagined urban spaces and its function as means of territorial appropriation and management throughout the Early Modern period in an attempt to map out the similarities and mutual influences, rather than the differences or discontinuities between urban environments touched by long term multilateral contacts.

Keywords: Imaginary Cities; Urban Traditions; Colonial Encounters; Urban Exchanges; Urban Hybridism

Period: Early Modern; 19th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Cátia Antunes (Netherlands) - Leiden University, Department of History
Filipa RIbeiro da Silva (Belgium) - University of Macau

Accepted papers:

“Meliapor, a que os nossos ora chamam S. Thomé”: through the imagery and the urbanization design
Vera Mónica Gaspar Domingues

Familiarising the Other
Nicolai A. Kölmel

Fortifications and the imagination of colonial control in the Dutch East India Company in Malabar 1662-1795
Erik Odegard

Imagined and Remembered Cities: Malacca under Portuguese, Dutch and English Rule
Michael North

Imagined Cities and the Construction of Plantation Space in the English Atlantic
Paul Musselwhite

Staking a Claim, Plotting a City: Contested Civility Frames Middle Plantation’s Morphology and Virginia’s Place in the Vision of Empire
Virginia Barrett Price

Tangier: a prison under the sun
Matteo Barbano

The Crescent in Historical Images of Romanian Cities (16th – 18th Centuries)
Anda-Lucia Spânu

M18. Between the Iberian Peninsula and America: Agents of Urban Creation, Practices and Discourses, Time and Protagonists

During the process of colonization of America various were the agents involved in the creation of new towns and cities. Among these agents were adventurers and explorers, donatory and military captains, missionaries and clergy, engineers and architects, ombudsmen and judges, Governors and nobles in the service of the Crown, among several others. Men of different social and geographic origins, it was up to them to transplant the Iberian urban culture to the new world. The goal of the session is to question the practices and discourses of these agents and their variations over time. We are interested in discussing not only the continuities and ruptures between the Iberian traditions and its changes in the new world, but also to note the differences between the processes under the Spanish and Portuguese settlements and possible regional differences within the same context. It is important to question the bases of formation of these multiple agents and discuss to what extent the legal and regulatory mechanisms intended to bridge the differences of urban culture among them. We are interested in discussing what was especially valued by these agents, which was, or what were, the essential attributes of urbanity that most of them shared, regardless of the possible variations in time and space. It is to see to what extent the very urban experience in colonial environment introduced in the image of the city other data or values conveyed by these agents. We propose to address these and other issues from the effective action of the agents in urban creation or of his speech about his action or project. Are therefore welcome papers that analyze narratives or processes of urban creations where it can identify the role of key actors on the ground, are also welcome papers to establish comparisons between distinct cases.

Keywords: Agents of Urban Creation; Iberian Peninsula; America

Period: Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Renata Araújo (Portugal) - Universidade do Algarve;  CHAM-UNL-UAç
Maria Fernanda Bicalho (Brazil) - Universidade Federal Fluminense

Accepted papers:

A Spanish institution in the New World: The cabildo of Cuzco in the XVIth century
María Luisa Domínguez-Guerrero

A Portuguese urban grammar study knowledge-based in geometric practices and discourses
Alexandra Paio, Benamy Turkienicz

Agents des fondations urbaines dans la Capitania de Sao Paulo à la fin du XVIIIe siècle : analyse comparative de l’élévation à vila des freguesias de Jaguary, Campinas et Ararytaguaba
Renata Baesso Pereira, Ivone Salgado

Building walls, creating Global Age. Urban Fortification in Spanish Monarchy. Engineering, Social Speechs and Power
Pedro José Herades Ruiz

Learning from Madeira and Azores. Agents and practices on the early Atlantic urbanization
Antonieta Reis Leite

Villes et villages du Nouveau Monde dans les documents des marchands et des voyageurs italiens au XVIe siècle
Angela Orlandi

The circulation of European urbanism in South America, 1900-1960: Interpretations and concepts
Candido Malta Campos

The Souls' Corral: urbanization, architecture and art of the Jesuit missions in the hinterland of the Northern Provinces of Brazil
Esdras Araújo Arraes

M19. Beyond the Grand Tour: Metropolises of the North in Early Modern Travel Culture

Early modern historians are used to gaze southwards, when discussing early modern travel behaviour. Due to a plethora of coffee-table books and exhibitions on the Grand Tour  it is easy to forget that there were other travel formulae looming large in the eighteenth century. Paris, Amsterdam and Brussels turned into popular travel destinations for British lords and commoners, while German elites were gradually ensnared by London as a most fashionable metropolis. London and Paris were also high on the agenda of Dutch burghers, even as their eyes were also travelling eastwards to Berlin, Dresden, Hannover, and Cologne. Metropolises of the north thus gradually started to compete with Florence, Venice, Rome and other southern towns, which had drawn travellers for centuries.

This session will explore this new blueprint of early modern travel behaviour in more detail. Firstly our session will offer a fresh perspective by reconstructing trends and topography. How popular were London, Paris, Dresden, and other metropolises of the north in comparison to the south? Can we shed some light on broad, long-term evolutions? Moreover, we especially invite papers, which try to link the growing/declining magnetism of these metropolises to some sweeping social changes. For textbook-wisdom holds, that eighteenth-century Europe saw some large-scale evolutions: the rise of absolutism, the commercial revolution, secularization, the commercialization of leisure, the Enlightenment. Last but not least, some parts of Europe experienced unprecedented urbanization and opened up by improvements in transport infrastructure.

This session will explore how these grand evolutions shaped actual travel behaviour. Were French, German, and Dutch travellers, for example, lured by London’s relatively new reputation as a fashion capital or rather enticed by its booming leisure infrastructure? How did the extensive building program of Louis XIV and the gradual reshaping of Paris in a modern metropolis add to its attraction on foreign travellers? Were travel itineraries shaped by infrastructural changes in the transport system and how important were industrial sites (Coalbrookdale, Liège) as destinations. Were the metropolises of the north (un)consciously branded as “modern” or “fashionable” and southern towns as “old”?

Clearly, this subject can be broached by using all sorts of source material. Diaries, travel journals, guidebooks, and other travel books are the most obvious sources, but we also invite papers based on iconographic material (prints, plans or paintings), bureaucratic sources (registers of the custom office, hotels or coaches) and other sources.

Keywords: Travel; Transport; Leisure; Enlightenment

Period: Early Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Roey Sweet (United Kingdom) - University Of Leicester, Centre For Urban History
Gerrit Verhoeven (Belgium) - University Of Antwerp, Centre For Urban History

Accepted papers:

‘Au contraire’: Prévost’s Apology of ‘Englishness’ in Volume V of the Mémoires (1732)
Emma Lavinia Elizabeth Pauncefort

Abroad or Still at Home? Young noblemen from the Czech Lands and the Empire in the 17th and 18th century
Eva Chodejovska, Zdenek Hojda

Amsterdam, magasin de l’univers, rendez-vous des nations (XVIIe-XVIIIe)
Madeleine Marie Van Strien

Domesticating differences: Creating narratives on utility, beauty and hazardous sacredness in Swedish premodern peregrination diaries
Helena Wangefelt Ström

Foubert’s Academy: Transnational Education in Late Seventeenth-Century Paris and London
Richard John Ansell

The European «Grand Tour» of the Italian Entrepreneurs
Corine Maitte

The Social and the Physical: Northern Topographies and Challenges on the Eighteenth-Century Aristocratic Grand Tour
Sarah Goldsmith

Where the light beacons: Scandinavian Grand Tourists in Germany and Northern Europe in the late eighteenth century
Finn-Einar Eliassen

M20. Of the Sound or the Sick? The Historical Role of Spa and Coastal Resort Towns in the Modern and Early Modern Periods

Scientific Relevance and Historiographical Context: Writing in the 1720s the English journalist Daniel Defoe famously declared Bath ‘the resort of the sound, rather than the sick’, a view repeated by the medical and social historian Roy Porter in 1982: ‘“Taking the waters” for medicinal reasons was the excuse, but in reality it [Bath] was a holiday spa’. Was the health function of spa and seaside resorts little more than a cloak to cover the pursuit of fun and pleasure? In recent years research into medical and leisure history have both flourished. But rarely have the two been analysed together, perhaps because they are constructed as mutually exclusive. There has also been an international efflorescence in work on the history of spas and coastal resorts, but again a historiographical divide has emerged between the two, with each, with rare exceptions, being treated independently. Yet they clearly possessed common features, not only the mixture of therapeutic and recreational regimes, but also the central role of water in the development of resort activities and architecture, and the allocation, organisation and use of urban space. This session follows logically from an earlier session, at EAUH Lyon in 2008, which produced a successful book on the historical relationships between coastal resorts and seaports, jointly edited by the presenters of the current proposal.

LEADING QUESTION: Were spas and seaside resorts predominantly places of health or pleasure?

KEY ISSUES: Was health more important in spas than seaside resorts? Did the significance of health decline over time, and in what ways? Did informal associations between health and environment outlive belief in formal medical regimes? Did the relative importance of health and leisure vary at resorts according to different (i) national cultures (ii) social classes (iii) types of spas and seaside resorts? How did the provision of health and leisure services play out in terms of urban politics? To what extent did the seaside resort model itself on the spa? Were spas and seaside towns in competition, or did they form part of mutually supportive resort systems?

THEMES: Health and medicine; leisure; urban development and competition; water; environment; politics.

AIMS: As well as extending the geographical range and comparative scope of the burgeoning case-study literature on spas and seaside towns, the session aims to dissolve imagined boundaries between histories of mineral spring resorts and coastal resorts, and between health and pleasure as motives for tourism, to promote comparative international work between these categories, and encourage an integrated vision of these aspects of urban tourism history.

Keywords: Health and Medicine; Leisure; Urban Development & Competition; Water; Environment; Politics

Period: Early Modern; Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Peter Borsay (United Kingdom) - Aberystwyth University
J. K. Walton (Spain) - Ikerbasque, University Of The Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz

Accepted papers:

To the spa or to the sea? Changes in health tourism demand in Austro Hungarian Monarchy
Tomi Brezovec

The Georgian Bathhouse, a battleground between health and mirth?
Allan Brodie

For the benefit of sufferers, half sufferers and non-sufferers. Negotiating illness and pleasure at the Dutch seaside resort of Scheveningen, 1818-1890
Jan Hein Furnée

Health, Leisure, and Politics: Vichy as a Spa Centre
Bertram M. Gordon

Health and Hedonism at the Sunny Seaside: the Case of English Coastal Resorts 1920-80
Fred Gray

Lough Swilly, Co. Donegal, Ireland, 1850-1914: A Case Study in Resort Development
Kevin Joseph James, Evan Tigchelaar

Affect and resort function in the literature of 19th century health tourism
Jill Steward

M21. Before the Assembly Lines: Materiality, Home and the Urban Consumer in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Beyond

In his autobiography My life and work (1922) Henry Ford famously remarked that you could buy his Ford T automobile in “any colour as long as it’s black”. His remark came to symbolize the final breakthrough of mass-production and mass-consumption at the turn of the twentieth century. Much has been said and written about the advent of ‘modern consumerism’, with debates focusing on the ‘birth of a consumer society’ in 18th-c. Britain on the one hand and on shopping and mass production in the late nineteenth-century on the other hand. Strange as it may seem, the period directly preceding the supply-side changes at the end of the 19th c. seems to be largely forgotten in historiography (Trentmann, 2013). Few scholars moreover have delved deeper in the specific material culture of the nineteenth-century homes, even though the steady cultural ascendance of the ‘breadwinner-homemaker household’-model and the development of ‘bourgeois domesticity’ are major narratives of the epoch. In this session we aim to revive scholarly attention for the material culture in the era prior to the advent of what is commonly known in literature as the ‘second industrial revolution’. The drastic transformations directly preceding this era of mass-production – rapid urbanization and overcrowding; early industrialization and mechanization; the physical and sanitary degradation of the urban environment; social and political unrest due to impoverishment, but equally growing possibilities for social mobility and expanding purchasing power for larger groups as before – warrants renewed attention for the urban consumer and the myriad ways in which his (or her) home related to his Umwelt. In welcoming papers exploring different dimensions of consumer practices from 19th-c. cities across the globe, we believe our session will have the potential to foster new insights in urban society at large. Questions to be raised relate, among others, to the social significance of changing consumer preferences and practices in an age of rapidly shifting social boundaries. Such an approach not only requires looking beyond mere public-private dichotomies, but also invites to investigate the political significance of everyday practices at home. Moreover, also the complexity of relationships between the rapidly transforming outer world and the domestic realm needs to be explored. Were nineteenth-century citizens, indeed, seeking refuge in a ‘safe domestic heaven’? And how did consumer preferences change under the growing public attention for sanitary and hygienist reforms? Such inquiry also raises questions about the significance of home in creating society and economy, eventually also the triumph of mass-production and mass-consumption?

Keywords: Material Culture; Consumption

Period: 19th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Bruno Blondé (Belgium) - University of Antwerp
Manuel Charpy (France) - CNRS / Université de Lille 3
Ilja Van Damme (Belgium) - University of Antwerp

Accepted papers:

‘The office is one thing, and private life is another’: bringing inventory evidence to bear on the home/work divide in mid-nineteenth-century London
Lesley Hoskins

Central Kitchen Buildings – a Solution or a Threat?
Laika Nevalainen

Consommation bourgeoise dans la région lyonnaise entre 1841 et 1899
Camille Cordier

Consumption patterns of Spanish aristocracy (1890-1930): The defense of traditional values against mass society
Miguel Artola

Family, Values and Style of Life. Liverpool Merchants 1820 – 1870
Ute Elisabeth Flieger

From the pantry to the parlour: negotiating domestic space in Victorian Dublin
Susan Galavan

Imagining the Ideal Kitchen as a Machine-Age Room – Early Home Economists and Architects Addressing the Issue of Home Modernization 1870-1930
Jenny Lee, Ulrika Torell

Where fairies seem to superintend… The breakthrough of comfort in nineteenth-century homes of Antwerp and Ghent
Britt Denis

M22. The Urban Economy: Networks, Flows and Place

This session explores the role of the diverse flows and networks of knowledge, materials, capital and people in the building, meaning and character of the urban economy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  Most economic history sees economic institutions as islands, separate from the specific locales in which they operate and tends to undervalue place. The economy has been relatively neglected by urban historians over the past two decades. While the growing interest in cultural, social and planning issues provides new insights into the dynamics of urban life, these insights have rarely been deployed to understand the working of the urban economy. With this in mind, this session explore the role of the circulation of economic assets (knowledge, materials, capital, and people) in the making, development, restructuring and meaning of the urban economy. Recent work on social, political and economic networks suggests that the linkages within the urban economy are simultaneously boundary spanning (relationships outside of the institutional shell), hierarchical (wide differences in the ability to control, manipulate and create assets), and local (rooted in the everyday politics of place). At the same time, economic agents, whether they be individuals, firms, industries, association or cities, operate within a set of broader set of spatial relationships that link place-based specific economic sites to metropolitan regional, national and international worlds. Urban economies are caught in a web of interactions and networks.

We invite case studies of, among other things, individuals, firms, industries, associations, institutions or cities that explore how local economic activity is a product of the circulation of economic, social and political assets. Thematically, among other topics, we welcome papers that explore the following issues: the differentiated economic processes of city-building (land assembly, infrastructures, residential and industrial construction, etc.); the mobilization of economic information and knowledge (among firms, associations, workers, growth alliances, governments, etc.); the rise of finance capital and the development of an urban hierarchy;  and the economics of spatial development and the role of individuals, associations and institutions in the making of urban spaces. Above all we want to explore the way in which the density and concentration of network activity in and between urban places affects the interaction of economic, social and cultural processes.

Keywords: Networks; Urban Economy; Economic Assets; Place

Period: Modern
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Robert Lewis (Canada) - University of Toronto
Bob Morris (United Kingdom) - University of Edinburgh

Accepted papers:

From the Pit to the Globe: The Reach of Commodity Exchanges
Deryck W. Holdsworth, Gretta Tritch Roman

Wall Street’s reach? Mapping The Wall Street Journal’s commercial news, 1914
Gordon M Winder

Building the urban space of economy in the web of interactions and networks
Methiye Gül Çöteli

Places and moments for intersecting flows. Representing and producing economic assets in 19th century exhibitions
Taina Syrjämaa

The Transnational Urban Real Estate Industry: How to Feel Out One of the Biggest Elephants in the Room
Carl H. Nightingale

Connecting Dornap: The Flow of Limestone and the Industrialization of the Ruhr, 1856-1900
Sebastian Haumann

Samba as profession: cultural industry, social networks and their places
Marcos Virgílio da Silva

The origins of the contemporary circus: the Cirque du Soleil and inter-sectorial networks
Deborah A Leslie, Norma Rantisi

M23. Municipalising or Privatising? Urban Services in Comparative Perspective (18th-21st Centuries)

his session deals with the question of the various urban services’ “regimes” as political modes of action since the 18th century. Key issues are the social, cultural, political and economic processes that promoted municipalisation as well as privatisation and were mutually influenced by these developments themselves. In which way for example did the relation of public and private spheres, of state and civil society, or of ideas about social order and justice change?

The scientific significance for historical research is obvious, because the tension between municipal and private options of supplying services required to modern cities is a key question of urban societies since the Industrial Revolution until today. At first, supply of water, gas or electricity was privately organised, only later these and many other services were municipalised or nationalised. Since the 1970s the scene of urban services has been complexified: while an urban market opened in emerging countries in Asia or Africa, some European cities explored the path of “re-municipalisation”. However, this process has hardly been considered from a historical perspective, but has been studied prevalently in economic and social sciences. In those studies privatisation has been often looked upon as an inevitable consequence of budgetary restrictions and higher efficiency of private companies. These interpretations seem too short-sighted, given that privatisation (as municipalisation before) was implemented in very different ways in several cities, but rejected in others. Therefore, much can be gained from a shift to a historiographical perspective, because it can show the diversity and ambivalence of the process beyond any theoretical preconceptions by analysing a broad number of sources.

This session aims to improve historicization of municipalisation and privatisation processes, from the “take off” of the phenomenon in the eighteenth century to our present. As potential themes for this session's paper, we welcome transnational, national or regional interactions and dynamics that stimulated municipalisation and privatisation processes, transfers of knowledge about these dynamics, and studies about the experiences of people who worked in enterprises that were privatised or the role of Think Tanks and private consultants. These issues can be researched in different fields of public enterprises and services (social housing, public transport, supply of water, wastewater or garbage disposal etc.).

Keywords: Urban Services; Municipalisation; Privatisation; Public Policy; Transfer of Knowledge

Period: Early Modern; 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Stéphane Frioux (France) - Université Lyon 2
Marcel Vom Lehn (Belgium) - University of Jena

Accepted papers:

Municipal services of Zagreb in the 20th Century - between municipalisation and privatisation
Goran Hutinec

Defending the municipal electric services against privatization: a case study of Frankfurt am Main during the Weimar period
Takahito Mori

Des services municipaux avant la réforme municipale anglaise de 1835?
Frédéric Moret

Is bus transportation public indeed? Marshrutka and changes of urban passengering in post-Soviet Ukraine
Andrey Vozyanov

Municipalization, Deregulation, and Third Ways: A comparative (and entangled) look at social housing in twentieth-century Oslo and Edinburgh
Laura Falender

Prague: From municipalisation through nationalisation to privatisation
Veronika Knotková, Hana Svatošová

Public initiative, private answer- building the first social housing allotments in Bucharest (1908-1914)
Andrei Razvan Voinea

The Cooperative Model as a Third Way Beyond Municipalizing or Privatizing Social Housing: The Case of Zurich, Switzerland, 1907-2011
Tobias Bernet

M24. Crossings and Crossers: Experts, Institutions and Networks under the Transnational Municipal Turn

One of the main topics of interest that has contributed much to the recent transnational turn in history has been the study of urban politics. This has included the transmission of political ideologies like democracy and reform, the study of political machines, as well as the circulation and exchange of administrative practices and knowledge amongst municipal officials and other experts. It has embraced the crossings of politicians, administrators, journalists and philanthropists. A transnational approach facilitates examination of urban political and governmental regimes and their actors in their comparative context, but equally so the active networks, spaces, and institutions functioning “in-between” nation-states in facilitating cross-national exchanges of expertise, ideas and people. For this session, we are interested in further exploring the relationship between the history of urban and municipal government and the transnational historical turn. Proposals are invited on comparative case studies and/or methodological reflections that cover any area of the world across the time frame from roughly 1700 to today. Proposals that reflect on the value of the interdisciplinarity of transnational history or novel source bases would also be welcome.

In particular, we are looking for papers (preferably in English) from a range of disciplines that examine one or more key issues:
• What are the different types and ranges of transnational urban and municipal networks? How far do they change their constitution, reach and influence over time?
• What kinds of institutions and actors have constituted transnational networks? Is there a shift from elected to appointed experts over the period, or do they have their own separate clubs?
• What interests cause individuals and local governments to build or participate in transnational networks? Again, do these shift over time as municipal interests evolve?
• What types of resources are these networks interested in collating and diffusing? How are these resources collated, stored and facilitated around the network and beyond?
• Are the types of exchanges being examined piecemeal, fleeting and one-off or more permanent and dense? Have the networks, as the literature suggests, grown in density and depth over the period?
• What are the types and range of methodologies, theoretical approaches and primary sources that historians should be embracing in their historical studies of municipal and other political transfers?

Keywords: Transnational; Municipal and Urban Government; Networks; Institutions; Actors

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Shane Ewen (United Kingdom) - Leeds Metropolitan University
Stefan Couperus (Netherlands) - Universiteit Utrecht
Jonathan Soffer (USA) - Polytechnic Institute of New York University

Accepted papers:

The Network Builders: Early Canadian Efforts to Create Transnational Networks for the Importation of Urban Planning Practice and Ideology 1910-1914
Catherine Mary Ulmer

Nordic Capital City Conferences - horizontal relationship between Scandinavian capitals
Laura Kristina Kolbe

The example of the Dutch urban government in Belgium during the 1930s. A case study on office architecture
Jens van de Maele

Bigger is best? Emulation in the formation of Greater Brisbane in 1924
John Minnery

Searching for self-government. Models of municipalism in late colonial Bombay
Nikhil Rao

"Planning the future as a world city deserves it..." Bringing transnational expert networks into play in the post-war reconstruction of Hamburg, FRG
Elke Beyer

A European World of Second Cities: A socio-historical approach of Eurocities (1986-2008)
Mili Spahic, Renaud Payre

Tammany Hall: The transnational political machine
Jonathan Soffer

M25. Urban “Wastelands”: Patterns of Emergence and Appropriation

Urban “wastelands” have emerged in the context of different historical situations such as dumps, brownfields, no man´s lands, polluted lands, etc. The notion of urban areas associated with “wasteland” has often reflected major shifts in land use as well as social change. This concept has also been used in order to disregard certain urban areas or to devalue their use by local people in the context of colonial cities for instance. Up until now, scholars have mainly looked at some sub-categories, such as brownfields, and often neglected re-appropriations and rehabilitation of former “wastelands”. One major goal of the session is to discuss the contexts in which urban land became “useless” in different historical periods and interpret these situations within the long-term development of urban spaces. De-industrialization and economic decline, migration of businesses and of the urban population, shifts in the cost of land, natural disasters and wars are amongst the main triggers in the emergence of “wasteland”. Is it possible to reflect on a conceptualization that would allow us to better understand the constitutive processes of this type of space and the urbanistic, environmental, social, and other issues that are associated with it?

The second main objective of the session is to demonstrate and reconstruct the new uses that this type of land attracted, such as housing, gardening, informal playgrounds, as well as illegal activities and invasions of plants and animals. Attention will also be given to the interventions of public administrations, such as town planning, police operations and the struggles that conflicts of interests between residents and administrations have provoked. The session will focus on the 19th and 20th century and on current research from different parts of the world in order to build a comprehensive concept of the processes of emergence and appropriations of "wastelands" in various historical contexts.

Potential themes of papers are: The emergence of “wastelands” in shrinking cities of the pre- and the post-industrial period; Governing urban “wastelands” after natural disasters; Squatting “wastelands” as a political strategy in European and American cities of the inter-war period; Urban wastelands in socialist cities; Appropriating wastelands by guerilla gardening, etc.

Keywords: Urban Wastelands; Changes in Land-Uses; Econonomic Decline; Re-Appropriations; Squatting

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Christoph Bernhardt (Germany) - Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning (IRS)
Michèle Dagenais (Canada) - Université De Montréal

Accepted papers:

Contested Lands: Urban Appropriations and Conflicts after the 1908 Messina Earthquake
Giacomo Parrinello

Extensive Urbanisation and the Peripheral Megasystem. The Transformation of Mining Towns in North Sweden during the 20th Century
Hakan Olof Forsell

Adventures in play: The appropriation of urban wastelands for junk playgrounds in Britain c. 1948 – 1970
Krista Cowman

What shall we do with the "central spaces"? Nantes, from rivers to cars (1926-1956)
Genevieve Massard-Guilbaud

Contested urban wastelands in Hamburg and Montreal
Ulrich Ufer

A Vivid Market Damaging a Fragile Section of the Tunis Medina: The Paradoxes of an Urban Wasteland between History and Present Times
Nora Lafi

Invasion of Suburbia: The Appropriation of Urban Wastelands in Post-1989 Leipzig
Arnold Bartetzky

M26. Cities – Environment – Sustainability

Martin Melosi (Houston)/ Dieter Schott (Darmstadt)

Environmental protection and the search for sustainability have been prominent issues on the urban  agenda since the 1970s and the 1990s respectively.  Cities in Europe and elsewhere have moved towards centre stage of the worldwide discourse on sustainable development. In this session we start from the hypothesis that cities have been developing their sustainability policies in extremely diverse ways and that it might be of major historical as well as political relevance to chart their trajectories and to determine the differences encountered.

Cities in our view are built environments, where civilization and nature interact most conspicuously and pervasively and produce what some scholars have termed ‘second nature,’ or possibly hybrid social/natural entities. The focus of the session should be on urban strategies, arguments, debates, conflicts over and contemporary experiences of attempts to improve urban sustainability. Papers should be concerned with urban (municipal) environmental politics and with activities and discourses of actors from civil society. Subjects could be, e.g., the re-integration of rivers and streams into the urban landscape, the massive promotion of solar energy or other alternative energy sources by political measures like the ones taken in the German city of Marburg, or the re-modeling of formerly industrial urban wastelands into urban parks as seen in the Ruhr Valley cities in recent years.  We are particularly interested in papers from the following fields:

1.  Since the ambition to make cities more sustainable always requires a reduction of resource use, studies of natural resources and their urban management, of material and energy flows and the metabolism of cities will be of major interest.

2. We are furthermore interested in papers addressing methodological and theoretical issues of urban environmental history, e.g., the concept of the city as a socio-natural site (Winiwarter/Schmid), of actor-network-approaches (ANT) etc.

3. In terms of relating urban environmental history to a wider scholarly context, we are interested in papers discussing potential links and bridges in contemporary (political) history on one hand, and general urban (cultural) history on the other hand. This aspect also addresses the issue of sources: which new sources might be used for such studies and what kind of problems arise from their use?

We will prioritize proposals with a comparative and international dimension.

Thursday, 4th September, 9.00-12.30


9.00 - Introduction (Melosi/ Schott)

9.10 - Samuel Niza (Lisbon, P), The metabolic behaviour of Lisbon Metropolitan Area from the pre-industrial period to the present

9.25 - Cyria Marie -Helene Emelianoff (Maine, F), L'historicité de la transition énergétique bas carbone : l'exemple de Metz Métropole (Lorraine)

9.40 - Federico Paolini (Naples, I), Green energies for the cities? Civil Committees Opposition to Wind Farms and Solar Plants in Italy (1980s-2010”

9.55 - Tobiah Horton (Rutgers, USA), Urban Value Quarry

10.10 - Discussion

10.30 - Coffee Break

11.00 - Michael Toyka-Seid (Darmstadt, GER), Running free - urban surface waters and the difficult way to urban sustainability in Mainz and Wiesbaden

11.15 - Matthias Lieb (Darmstadt, GER), Civic commitment for environmental protection and sustainable development in the cities of Mainz, Wiesbaden, and Freiburg

11.30 - Carolina Castro Osorio (Bogota, Col), Public policies in Bogotá, 1970-2010

11.45 - Andreas Wesener (Lincoln, NZ), Re-conceptualising urban sustainability after a natural disaster: transitional community - initiated open spaces in Christchurch, New Zealand

12.00 - Discussion of papers after break

12.20 - General discussion

12.30 - End of session, lunch break

M27. Border Cities in Europe, Asia and America

Extending the notion of cultural transfer to urban history, we propose to organize a session focusing on those cities where the impact of transnational exchanges is most evident. Cities in general are the nodes of different kinds of networks, regional, national or international. This aspect is however more crucial to those towns situated at the frontiers, and more so in regions where borders have shifted through history. These in-between cities mingle some aspects of the two spheres in which they take part. To each culture, they represent the image of the other, constructed from different and immediately perceptible aspects, from food to architectural style. Other aspects are less evident but can have an important impact: urban legislation for instance or professional careers (persons working on both sides of the border). The hybridization of cultures taking place in these towns occurs on different levels: urban forms (streets, squares, etc.); buildings (style, materials, types, lay-out, etc.); institutions (councils, commissions, etc.); agents involved in the construction process (proprietors, architects, builders, etc.); economic sectors (tourism and manufacturing are obvious examples); and, work force. But mingling does not necessarily mean the mixture of two entities; it can also emphasize some particularities. Border towns can, for instance, specialize in some services as an attraction to those living on the other side of the frontier (some commerce related to tax advantages, etc.). In situations of confrontation, a border town can also aggressively emphasize in relation to its neighbors that which differentiates them.


Keywords: Cities; Frontier; Town planning; Architecture; Cultural transfers

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Anne-Marie Châtelet (France) - Ecole nationale supérieure d’architecture de Strasbourg
Wolfgang Brönner (Germany) - Kunsthistorisches Institut der Johannes Gutenberg Universität Maintz
Michaël Darin (France) - Ecole nationale supérieure d’architecture de Strasbourg


14:00 -    Anne-Marie CHATELET,
«Villes de frontières, villes de transferts ? Questions de méthode / Cities of borders, cities of transfers? Questions of method

14:30 -    Aleksander LUPIENKO, Pologne Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Graduate of the Faculty of Architecture, Warsaw Politechnics and the Historical Institute, Warsaw University
«Warsaw - a Russian Border City in the 19. Century»

15:00 - Rosa Tamborrino, Paolo Cornaglia - Rosa Tamborrino Italie Politecnico di Torino, Department of Architecture and Design Historian of architecture and city, Department of Architecture and Design, full professor; Paolo Cornaglia Italie, Politecnico di Torino, Department of architecture and Design, assistant professor
«A little walk up to the borders: how do you feel in Czernowitz or Harbin?»

15:30    Débats - Discussions

Pause – Coffee Break

16:00 -    Dragan DAMJANOVIC, Croatie - Zagreb University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Art History Department, assistant professor, Chair of Modern Art and Visual Communications
«Towns in the Croatian and Slavonian Military Border in 19th-century: Architectural Reform and Modernisation at the Periphery of the Habsburg Monarchy»

16:30 -    Junko NINAGAWA Professor Faculty of Letters General Department of Humanities Art History and Aesthetics Kansai - University, Japan 2011 - PhD Ghent University , Belgium
«Ōura Tenshudō: a French Temple in Nagasaki, Japan»

17:00 - Michaël DARIN, Strasbourg, Professeur d’histoire et de culture architecturales à l’Ecole nationale supérieure d’architecture de Strasbourg, membre de l’AMUP - Architecture, Morphologie, / morphogenèse urbaine et projet
«Strasbourg, a case of urbanistic transfert: la Grande Percée»

17:30    Débats - Discussions

M28. At the Edge of the Atlantic World: Port Cities and Transcultural Change, 19th-21st centuries

Atlantic port cities, while important throughout history, reached a zenith of relevance from the 19th century onwards. They represented central nodes of innovation, hubs for the exchange of goods, people, ideas and technology. They were also ideal places for merchants and business activities. Over time, important networks developed between the various Atlantic port cities. At the same time, the competition among port cities increased.

The history and functioning of ports has always attracted considerable attention from different disciplines. However, until recently, they tended to focus economic aspects of intercontinental seaport networks and overseas traffic systems. It will be necessary to combine this research with newer perspectives of cultural history.

Thus, this session intends to debate and analyze the following topics:
A) What were the driving forces behind the stagnation or the growth of Atlantic port cities?
B) How did port cities cope with the complexities of these changes?
C) How did the changing spatial organization of port cities lead to change in the imaginary of the Atlantic port cities?

The ongoing research conducted by each of this session organizers is mainly centered around the port of Lisbon and the port of Rio de Janeiro. This session seeks to draw comparisons between other Atlantic port cities, too, in order to analyze their transatlantic, transnational and transcultural embeddedness.

The aim of this session is to promote the understanding of how Atlantic port cities developed in the perception of different actors from the era of the industrial revolution to the present. We will ask how some of these port cities reinvented themselves over time, how some of them maintained their status as port hubs and how some of them completely renewed their waterfronts design and activities.

This session encourages multidisciplinary approaches to promote a fruitful debate among scholars. The results are expected to shed light on the outstanding complexity of port cities and to discuss different factors and typologies of change.

Keywords: Port Cities; Transcultural History; Technology and Culture

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Catarina Caetano da Rosa (Germany) - Technical University of Darmstadt
Ana Prata (Portugal) - Universidade Nova De Lisboa
Cezar Honorato (Brazil) - Universidade Federal Fluminense

Accepted papers:

Port-cities in Senegal: The rising of Dakar into the Senegalese port hierarchy (1880-1939)
Daniel Castillo Hidalgo

Ports and Painters
Patrick OFlanagan

Les ports et les villes de charbon de l'Atlantique
Suárez Bosa Miguel

Impact of the World Expo Exhibitions on the spatial organization change of the port cities of Seville and Lisbon, and their relationship to the change of how these cities are percieved
Inga Maria Dworak

Ville et province de Rio de Janeiro dans les trois permières décennies du XIX e siécle
Fania Fridman

Transformações e vivências na região portuária do Rio de Janeiro
Fernando Sergio Dumas Dos Santos

Veracruz in the Atlantic World: Maintenance and Change Over Time
Beau Gaitors

The slavery that (trans) form. Slavery and urban space in Rio de Janeiro and Havana
Ynae Lopes Santos

M29. Convent Confiscation and Disposal, and its Role in Urban Change

Desamortização, the process of confiscation and disposal of convents and other religious establishments, was a founding event of the liberal revolutions that, following the French Revolution, spread throughout Europe and Latin America. Given the extent of the properties held by religious orders, their confiscation and disposal had profound repercussions on the urban fabric that can still be felt today.

This long-standing subject of study in European historiography has mostly been approached from an economic and legal point of view. In contrast, this session proposes bringing together current research focused on the urban consequences of the process. To this end, it aims at working as a platform for sharing information, methodological approaches and global objectives, with the purpose of ascertaining constants, models and particularities. The session also aims at comparing different instances of transformation and new occupation of remarkable convent buildings that avoided demolition. Lastly, it seeks to attract current, less well-known research by broadening the field to Latin America.

Relevant subject areas for this session include, but are not restricted to:
• The relationship between the location of convents and other religious establishments, and urban development patterns, from the Middle Ages to the dissolution of religious orders;
• The sale of church possessions and its economic impact on the definition and strengthening of the urban middle classes involved in city growth;
• Interaction between urban planning processes and redevelopment of convent property;
• Inventory, study and characterization of the transformation of non-demolished convents and their role in city dynamics in successive political, economic and cultural contexts;
• Debate on current problems arising from new uses given to former convent facilities, with a particular focus on Portuguese case-studies.

Keywords: Convents; Urban Development; Heritage

Period: 19th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Raquel Henriques da Silva (Portugal) - Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas - Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Luis Espinha da Silveira (Portugal) - Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas - Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Lynn Hollen Lees (USA) - University of Pennsylvania
Germán Rueda (Spain) - Universidade de Cantabria

Accepted papers:

Le devenir urbain d’un bien national: l’enclos Saint-Jean-de-Latran, années 1790-1850
Repenser le 19

Les suppressions ecclésiastiques à Milan (1770-1815)
Albane Cogné

Redeveloping the City: Urban transformation after the secularization of convents in Brussels and Antwerp at the turn of the 19th century
Thomas Coomans

The city of convents in the urban age: Moscow convents between the Catherine II secularization and the Russian Revolution
Tatiana Vitalievna Atamuratova

The extinction of the religious orders: from the integration into the urban fabric to the permanence of monastic structures in the city
Maria José Casanova

The fall of Monteoliveto: confiscation and transformation of a wide conventual insula in the historic center of Naples, 1799-1936
Andrea Pane, Giovanna Russo Krauss

The religious houses in Lisbon’s Urban Image: 1834-2014
Rita Mégre, Hélia Silva

M30. Ubiquitous yet Unique: Green Spaces in Cities from the 18th Century to the Present

Green spaces can be found throughout European cities and beyond.  Parks, children’s playgrounds, sports fields, allotment gardens, city farms, lidos, and urban forests have been integrated in different urban formats for different purposes.  Historical and contemporary debates underscore the central significance of green spaces within urban arenas and their future relevance for creating liveable cities. Yet if one tries to come up with an overarching definition about the meaning of urban green spaces, one is faced with a wide variety of descriptions and quantitative categorizations that make it rather difficult to gain an overall understanding of what is meant by ‘urban green spaces’ and how they have been linked to the historical development of different cities.

How do we explain these differences? The proposed panel would examine this topic by raising the following questions: Why are parks and boulevards so widespread while other types of green spaces are not? How important are climatic factors and seasonality? How do such green spaces reflect particular cultural connotations about urban nature, including the place of women and different ethnic groups? What factors have shaped municipal policies and notions about public living spaces? Who is/was responsible for the planning of green spaces? What role do ‘bottom-up’ politics play in the greening of urban spaces in different places of the world? This session would aim to encourage comparisons not only between different parts of Europe but also with North and South America, the Middle East and Asia.  It would aim to use the theme to shed light on wider urban issues such as the importance of urban seasonality, nature and the city, planning, the role of the green movement, and NGOs, as well as property owners and developers.

We would hope to attract contributors both from Europe and beyond, publicizing the session through Dorothee Brantz’s extensive North American network of scholars and Peter Clark’s global cities network. We would structure the session with 8 papers and 1 or 2 commentators.


Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Dorothee Brantz (Germany)
Peter Clark (Finland)

Accepted papers:

"A Few Hardy Trees, a Patch of Green Sward, and a Spread of Gravel": The Public Park in Australia, America and Britain 1860-1900
Susan Joan Reidy

Different motives, different greens – London’s green spaces in the 20th century
Matti O. Hannikainen

Generous Harvest: Allotment Gardens and the Politics of Urban Green Space in Sweden
Jennifer Mack, Justin Scherma

Informal Recreation and Green Space in Helsinki and Dublin in the 1970s and 1980s
Suvi Talja

Shades of Red: aerial photography in service of green cities
Sonja Duempelmann

Socialist versus capitalist green? Large housing estates and their green spaces in the western and eastern part of Germany (1960s-1980s)
Sylvia Necker

The Implementation of the Garden City Idea in Colonial Contexts: Between Dakar and Tel Aviv
Liora Bigon and Yossi Katz

The multifarious meanings of urban green space & the importance of the alternative perspective: a case study of nineteenth century Antwerp
Bart Tritsmans

Urban parks in an extended professional and cultural context 1930–1970
Catharina Nolin

Urban Planning and Green Open Spaces: the Ghent Congress of 1913 and the spirit of modernity
Helen Meller

M31. The Role of Green Spaces for People in Shrinking and Growing Cities

Current rates and levels of global urbanization processes in the global south are unprecedented in history and threaten to put acute stress on remote ecosystems as well as on the capacity of social, economic and ecological systems in cities to deliver the necessary services for human wellbeing (Seto et al. 2012; UNEP 2012). Simultaneously many cities in the global north have not yet been able to adapt to the post-industrial transition, and hence are shrinking in terms of socio-economic performance and demography (Nilsson 2011). On top of this, global environmental change, increasing frequencies of natural catastrophes and volatile financial markets highlight the need to put emphasis also on strategies of resilience building as a complement to environmental mitigation strategies of cities (Vale and Campanella 2005; Barthel et al. 2013). Advocating a historical ecological approach, this session invites papers that explore the long-term pulse dynamics of alternating states of shrinking and growing cities. Contributions that investigate the main forcing factors of such long-term pulses are welcome, and particularly cases that investigate the relationship between people in such dynamics with urban blue-green infrastructures, including water bodies, gardens, parks and urban forests and more. It may be relations of cognitive nature or different natural resource perspectives including urban food and water security at these alternating phases.

Urbanism is a global phenomenon with considerable time-depth. In most regions of the world, people have for more than a millennium—and often for several millennia—organized their settlements in ways that we today can recognize as distinctly urban. The Chicago school of urban scholarship firmly established a modernist understanding of urbanism as an essentialist reality separate from its larger metabolistic support-system and continues to permeate not only the social sciences but also popular perceptions of the constitution of cities. However, there is emerging evidence from other schools including historical ecology, urban ecology and environmental urban history that challenges such separation. Particularly lucid examples include not only pre-industrial cities from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, but also post-industrial cities, including shrinking cities, slums, and cities hit by catastrophes. This session attempts to put attention on the close connection of cities in crises to its proximate support areas of food production, fresh water sources as well as cognitive perspectives on the role of urban nature for life quality of individuals and societies.

We welcome contributions that critically examine the observed and potential role of green-blue infrastructures in shrinking/growing urban long-term dynamics, as well as temporal snap cases presenting temporal ‘snapshots’ in urban history. It may be from a range of perspectives, including self-sufficiency of food in times of crises, health, religion, power, as well as its role in the transition to a post-industrial economy. We also encourage studies that assess the long- and short-term values of agricultural space in cities, or that tracks the place of urban small scale industries of local food or beverage production, fishing, horticulture and farming in metabolistic shifts and trends over the long-term in urban energy regimes.

We aim for a broad coverage of empirical cases and invite historians, ecologists, archaeologists, geographers, anthropologists, psychologists as well as other scholars to participate in the session and submit a paper proposal.

Keywords: Shrinking Cities; Urban Dynamism; Demography; Economy; Cognitive; Urban Nature; Food

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Stephan Barthel (Sweden) - Stockholm Univeristy
Christian Isendahl (Sweden) - Uppsala University

Accepted papers:

A Historical Ecological Perspective on Alternating States of Shrinking/Growing Cities
Stephan Barthel, Christian Isendahl

A quantitative sustainability assessment: effectivenes of green-blue infrastructure in a shrinking city
Catalina Freixas, Pablo I. Moyano Fernandez

Adopting Blue-Green Infrastructure to Local Conditions for Urban Sustainability
Jongseok Shin, Heekyung Park

Aiming for the Green Consciousness? The 19th Century City of Lodz, Poland in a Struggle for the New Identity
Renata Mikielewicz

Berlin’s intercultural gardens: Urban landscapes of social-ecological memory
Irene Stefanie Hakansson

From Slag Heaps to Compost Tips: The historical role of green space in the 'coalfired urbanism' of the south Wales Valleys
Alastair Smith, Kevin Morgan, David Llewellyn

Urban agriculture
Paul Swagemakers

Green Space Development in Cities under simultaneous Growth and Shrinkage: Patterns, Strategies, Impacts and Governance
Dagmar Haase

M32. Urban Health Systems Before Welfare States – European Cities Since 1800

Modern health systems as developed after the Second World War were based on infrastructures and modes of delivery that had developed in urban centres since late medieval times. Health care provision – especially hospital care – underwent a major transition in 19th early 20th centuries. As urbanization and industrialization brought about new demands health care, along with poor relief, were recognized as “national” challenges but to be managed on a local, communal level. Moreover, the last third of the century along with the era of major wars after 1900 saw modern medicine come up with new promises as well as new requirements, increasing both demand and costs. The period from 1800 thus saw local states, voluntary organisations and private providers along with medical professionals and religious groups build more or less coherent systems of care to meet these challenges. These diverse bodies utilized a range of methods to raise the resources to deliver their provision including charity, working class mutual aid, not-for-profit and commercial insurance, state support and patient payment as well as a range of free services.

This session seeks papers from historians working on any form of health care in urban settings in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Though its main focus is Europe, papers that explore the actions of European colonists or comparative and transnational proposals which link developments in European cities to changes across the globe will be equally welcome. In particular, we would encourage work that explores:
• The mix of health care services and the relationship between voluntary, religious, commercial, municipal and mutual providers.
• The role of urban health care administrations compared to national and regional health care agencies; especially their respective potentiality in regulating and financing health care
• The role of doctors and other health professionals in promoting and managing, as well as delivering, medical services
• The role of the urban sick, the health care “consumers”, and patients articulating demand for or refusing the local supply
• Class, gender, age and locality in promoting or retarding access to medical aid and in the shaping of provision.
• The impact of patronage and politics in the efficiency and effectiveness of services and the nature of contests within the elite and between traditional urban leaders and new comers in the professions, the unions and the working class more generally.

Papers that offer comparative perspectives, especially across nations will be particularly welcome.

Keywords: Health; Hospitals; Welfare; Doctors

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Barry Doyle (United Kingdom) - University Of Huddersfield
Fritz Dross (Germany) - University Of Erlangen-Nürnberg

Accepted papers:

"Den bedürftigen Kranken zu uneigennütziger und unentgeltlicher Hilfe". Zur Situation der Dresdner (Poli-)Klinischen Anstalten des 19. Jahrhunderts
Alexandra-Kathrin Stanislaw-Kemenah

Disability, Friendly Societies and the British Coal Industry, c.1800-1914
Anne Borsay

Do cities make children healthy? – Establishing public health for children in Germany around 1900: using the example of Düsseldorf
Jörg Vögele, Hideharu Umehara

Health care provision in Piraeus, 1835-1914
Lydia Sapounaki-Drakaki, Maria-Luiza Tzoya Moatsou

Local medical men and the development of an urban health care system in Durham city 1831 – 1914
Michael Toyka-Seid

Public health in a divided city: inter health in Belfast
Sean Lucey

Sanitary reform in England and Wales, 1871-1914
Bernard Harris

Subsidiary social provision in Belgian health care (1830-1914) The case of Ghent, Brussels and Liège
Hendrik Moeys

The construction of the urban network of public hospitals and outpatient clinics during the first decades of the Franco dictatorship (1940-1960)
Margarita Vilar-Rodríguez, Jerònia Pons-Pons

The donations and the hospital institution in Verona from the Ospedale Infantile Alessandri to the New Hospital Centre
Valeria Rainoldi

Viennese medical professionals as supporters and critics of regulated prostitution from the 1860s to the beginning of the First World War Mari
Tuulia Tanninen

M33. Cities and Overseas Migration in the Long Nineteenth Century

Transatlantic migration that encompassed the entire European continent in the nineteenth century has attracted much scholarly attention in the recent decades. However, while a large body of literature concentrated on the history of European immigrants in North and South America after they have landed there, much less research has been done on the history of their, often prolonged and complex, routes within the continent before they could board the ships that would eventually transport them to America. Interesting work on their longer stays in the ports of departure connected their history to the local municipal institutions and their initiatives, as  well as other involved self-help, charitable, ethnic and religious organisations. Much less work has been done on the other cities en route. While some travelled from nearby ports, migrants from Eastern, Southern and Northern Europe had to cross large parts of the continent before embarkation overseas in Trieste, Marseille, Hamburg and Bremerhaven, and many travelled further to Antwerp, Rotterdam, Liverpool, Le Havre, Cherbourg, Nantes and other ports. Vienna, Berlin, Paris and many other, smaller cities functioned as hubs in the railway and information network, while the agents of shipping companies reached out to the most remote locations and national governments constructed border crossing stations that controlled the inflow of emigrants. Entire industries that catered for the needs of the migrants, organised further travel and attempted to control, encourage or restrict it, functioned around ports, railway stations and border crossing points. In some cities entire districts turned into spaces of transient living. This session will explore the intricate mechanisms established within each locality that enabled the process of Transatlantic migration last for decades, as well as complex modes of interaction between the cities in sharing the know-how and in borrowing ideas from each other.

Keywords: Transatlantic Migration; Ports; Cities en Route; Transit Stations

Period: 19th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Markian Prokopovych (Austria) - University of Vienna
Philipp Ther (Austria) - University of Vienna

Accepted papers:

'The Long March Through Leipzig': Urban Environment and the Transmigrant Register Station, 1904-1914
Allison Leigh Schmidt

Trieste as a port of overseas emigration: 1880s-1914
Aleksej Kalc

Strangers in Transit: Berlin’s “Emigrant Train Station” and the Mass Migration from Eastern Europe 1891-1914
Tobias Brinkmann

Bremen, Liverpool, Marseille and Rotterdam and the transformation of urban space in the long nineteenth century
Paul Thomas Van de Laar

Out of the public eye, into collective memory? The nineteenth-century pioneering urban migrant control stations and lodging houses in New York, Rotterdam, Antwerp and Leipzig
Torsten Feys

Bridging European and American Cities: Migrants and the Transnational Principle of Belonging in the Atlantic World
Hidetaka Hirota

Overseas Migration and Urban History of Central Europe in the Nineteenth Century
Markian Prokopovych

M34. The Administration of «Informal» Neighbourhoods in the World (19th-21st Centuries)

While it is difficult to support the existence of a ‘spontaneous’ urbanization, since it always involves at least micro-regulations among different agents, the category of ‘informal city’ remains very common to describe the built-up spaces – often self-built – on the fringe of legality. Nevetheless, the representation of these neighbourhoods as urban outgrowths showing an impotence of the public authorities is largely falsified by the empirical studies.

Studies, in fact, show that these spaces don’t escape public control. The informal neighbourhoods have a structure that reflects the logics of their production. Among these, are the unwritten rules of their de facto government by the public authorities. The operation of the ‘informal city’ cannot be considered as separate from the official city. The two cities are strictly intertwined and articulated both in a social-economic dimension and in a political one. The ‘informal’ neighbourhoods cannot be considered as unwanted outgrowths, or planning failures, of which they are often the products. Their (partial) illegality isn’t a marginal characteristic, but the key of their functioning. Actually, the irregularity of these neighbourhoods is a space where an entanglement of particular and collective interests takes roots. This combination contributes to make the ‘informal’ status permanent. The ‘informal’ is often a system of government.

More precisely, in this session we want to analyze how the public atuhorities rule the neighbourhoods officially identified as informal. In particular, we would like to examine the following issues. How do the public agents put in place the question of the informal city? What tools do they use to describe, measure and provide documentary evidence of it? What professional expertise is involved to produce this knowlodge? What institutional and juridical frameworks are created to rule these neighbourhoods? What is the process of their formation? How are they put into operation? How do the inhabitants, the owners and the other agents who are involved in the production of the informal city use them? Who are the other protagonists (associations, religious institutions, activists) who intervene in the relationship between administration and individuals? How and when do these ruling patterns fall into a crisis or why do they provoke, in some cases, the development of particular social movements? Finally how are the ruling practices of these spaces connected to the policies of regularization? What are the political goals of the regularization policies? What are the factors that could explain the changes or the conservation of the irregular situations?

Keywords: Informal Urbanization; Law; Urban Administration; Urban Government

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Francesco Bartolini (Italy) - University of Macerata
Rafael Soares Gonçalves (Brasil) - Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro
Charlotte Vorms (France) - Université de Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbone

Accepted papers:

An historical geography of informal suburban development
Richard Harris

A resilient bazaar: failure of colonial planning and policing in a Calcuta neighbourhood, c. 1900-1926
Sugata Nandi

Un cas parisien d'urbanisation informelle?: la naissance du "quartier" de la Goutte-d'Or
Alexandre Frondizi

The Crate-House Dwellers - informal urbanization, politics and law around Copenhagen 1918-24
Poul Sverrild

Musgueira neighborhood - urban administration at informal neighborhoods and space regularization
Gonçalo Antunes, José Lúcio, Nuno Pires Soares, Rui Pedro Julião

Between planning and spontaneity. The growth of Santiago de Chile in the second half of the xx century
Emanuel Giannotti

Rentier State - Informal Neighborhoods: The Political Economy of Egyptian Urbanization since the 1970s
Relli Shechter

The città abusiva in contemporary southern Italy. Construction processes and evolution perspectives
Federico Zanfi

M35. Small Towns in Europe and Beyond: 20th-21st Century

In our research we have focused on analysis of identities of urban communities, and discovered that the perspective of small towns can contribute considerably to the debate. Yet the small towns are one of the neglected themes in urban history of modern and contemporary period. The project on small towns carried by Bernard Lepetit and Peter Clark more than 20 years ago was focused on early modern towns and had no continuation which would systematically research small towns in 19th century and later. This is surprising since in Europe the small towns remain to be quite visible type of urban settlement even in the 21st century, regardless of previous urban growth, regional urbanisation, and dominant position of metropolises, metropolitan agglomerations, and large cities in general. Our perspective is of course European. We claim that the number of small towns is still quite large, and that the experience of life and sociability in a small community is important. We propose to revisit the notion of small town in the context of the changes of the second half of the 20th century. We wish to add non-European perspective and we would like to approach the issue from interdisciplinary perspective.

We are looking for contributions which would discuss the following questions:
- What is understood as a small town in academic and public discourse and in various areas? Are they defined primarily by size of population, by their social functions, or by other criteria, such as morphology or distinct kind of culture?
- Are the small towns only shrinking, losing population, and even dying since the 19th century, or have they shown capacity for sustainability and growth as well?
- Is their economic, cultural and social function disappearing? Do they keep administrative functions?
- How has globalisation influenced the fortunes of small towns?
- What strategies are adopted by the local and regional officials for their small towns in order to keep towns alive, to cope with the small town condition, and to overcome stigma of smalltownness?
- What frames of identification are used in (self)presentation of small towns? Do they relate to local, regional, national, or supranational contexts?
- Is history important for small towns? How is history and memory used for representation and socialisation of their society? How do small towns encounter the process of musealisation?
- How do small towns perceive and represent their position with regard to the border between urban and rural? With which side do they identify? Do they play with their “urban” nature and “urban” past?

Keywords: Small Town; Heritage; Memory; Rural Town

Period: 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Luda Klusakova (Czech Republic) - Charles University in Prague
Jaroslav Ira (Czech Republic) - Charles University in Prague
Marie-Vic Ozouf-Marignier (France) - EHESS

Accepted papers:

Kula: An Inquiry into The Fate of a Preserved Ottoman Small Town
Ela Cil

Rural identity on Brazilians urban areas: an essay about the interior of São Paulo State
Vitor Cordova

Les petites villes et les projets d’aménagement du territoire dans la Hongrie communiste
Gábor Czoch

The unachieved urbanity of Walloon "small towns". A contribution to their urban history and to their urban design challenges
Axel Fisher

Performing the Past: Identity, Civic Culture and Historical Pageants in Twentieth-Century Small Towns
Tom Hulme, Angela Bartie, Linda Fleming, Mark Freeman, Paul Readman

Socialist urbanization strategies. GDR-small towns between decline and development
Lena Kuhl

Strategies of manufacturing tourist experience in a small town: Local community and symbolic construction in Myshkin
Greg Yudin

“The architectural rhythm of the small town … is very close to us.” Small towns as an aesthetic ideal in the 20th and 21st centuries
Martin Horacek

M36. Planting New Towns in Europe in the Interwar Period: Politics, Practitioners and People

New towns have a unique interest in urban planning history. In Europe, most of the process of mass urbanization has taken place around the core of established towns, always transforming them in the process but never offering a tabula rasa to modern planners. New towns on the other hand, were exciting in that they offered a chance to break free from history and the ‘detritus’ of the past (supposedly a modernist ideal).

Breaking free from the past is a natural human instinct of the next generation and in the twentieth century, between the two World Wars, hopes were high that new beginnings could be made that would lead to a better future. Politics, especially of the extremes of Fascism and Communism, but not exclusively, since there were democratic countries where planners sought to change the urban future with equal enthusiasm and, naturally, many of the new European countries set up under the Treaty of Versailles nurtured such longings.

New Towns built in Europe, from the Scandinavian countries to the new democracies in Central Europe, from the Fascist, Nazi and Communist countries, to the Imperial nations, had one thing in common: they came into being to meet social and economic needs. There was a chance to marry ideas on urban design with “progressive” ideas on society that may, or may not have been, stronger than the political dictates of any government.

The debate on interwar new towns has been confined mostly on a national level and has strongly emphasized the role of architecture and town planning as tools for political legitimization and ideological representation of the regime’s aims and power.

The aim of this session is to broaden comparative research and to evaluate what was achieved in this period, specifically in the complex context of Europe, by exploring how well established ideas about what constitutes good urban design, ways of integrating social needs and aspirations within an orderly framework, worked out in practice.

It is hoped to raise issues about the relationship between different political structures, and the practitioners and citizens who worked to shape the urban environment.

Keywords: European New Towns; Interwar Period; Urban Design; Politics; Social Aspects

Period: 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Helen Meller (United Kingdom) - University of Nottingham
Heleni Porfyriou (Italy) - CNR-Institute for the Conservation and Enhancement of Cultural Heritage-Rome

Accepted papers:

New towns from the Thirties in Europe (Italy, Holland, Germany)
Dunia Mittner

From garden city to new town: social change and town planning at Welwyn, 1920-1948
Mark John Clapson

New cityscapes and perfect civilians in the Netherlands 1920-1940
Koos Bosma

Internal colonization and agrarian-towns in Sicily from Fascism to Democracy
Simone Misiani

Hannes Meyer’s new towns in the Soviet Union
Ferry Vermeer

In the aftermath of Civil War in Helsinki 1918: Pro Helsingfors - General Plan and “Fantasizing” a Modern Capital City
Laura Kristina Kolbe

New towns in the making in interwar Finland: the grand future of the township of Riihimaki
Ulla Salmela

Prague: from 1929 to 1939. Through laboratory work, the avant-garde prepares the art of socialist society of the future
Alena Kubova

M37. Iron Curtain Cities? Urban Space in Cold War Europe

The transformation of European life after 1945 has been the subject of a wide scholarship, but surveys of the period have not taken sufficient account of urban history. Moreover, urban historians have overwhelmingly focused on the periods up to the early twentieth century and are only beginning to explore the post-war period. In particular, the similarities and differences between cities in different parts of Europe, and especially on either side of the Iron Curtain, have not been adequately studied. After 1945, the cities of Western and Northern Europe experienced suburbanization and the emergence of conurbations, while Eastern, Southern and Southeastern Europe were subject to very rapid urbanization. Were these simply different stages of a common process of European urban modernization? Or, between the 1940s and the 1980s, did the contrasting ideologies of the Cold War separate European cities into two fundamentally different types: the ‘capitalist’ and the ‘communist’? How different or similar were residents’ everyday lives, their relations to government institutions, and their involvement in urban society? How we answer these questions is not only highly relevant to urban historians but also to our understanding of European history in this period. And it can throw light on the way we look at post-communist urban identity in Eastern and Central Europe today.

The organizers, one of whom has worked on urban themes in Western Europe and one of whom has researched urban life in Eastern Europe, have already explored the urban history of Europe since 1945 from various angles in a series of conferences held at the University of Leeds. For the proposed panel, they seek papers on any aspect of urban history in any part of Europe provided that they relate to the theme of the Cold War (broadly conceived). The hope is to find speakers who are prepared to reflect on how their own case study informs the wider debate about the similarities and differences between urban life on either side of the Iron Curtain. Researchers working on cities on the ‘periphery’ of Cold War Europe, including Scandinavia, Iberia and the Balkans, would be as welcome to apply as researchers who work on the urban heartlands of Western and Eastern Europe.

Keywords: Post-1945 Europe; Cold War; Urban Space

Period: 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Moritz Föllmer (Netherlands) - University of Amsterdam
Mark B. Smith (United Kingdom) - University Of Leeds

Accepted papers:

Reflections on urban space in Cald War Europe
Mark B. Smith

Symbolic interconnections between ‘socialist’ and ‘capitalist’ cities in post-war Europe: case of urban planning
Slavka Ferencuhova

The Contested Place of Self-Building in Yugoslavia’s Socialist Cities
Brigitte Le Normand

Socialist Living' in an old 'capitalist city': Urbanity, social inequalities and spatial experiences in Leipzig (1970s/80s)
Christian Rau

Planning the future of London and imagining the end of London in the late 1940s
Adam Page

Modern Housing Projects in Eastern and Western European Cities: How different?
Francisco Javier Monclús Fraga, Carmen Díez Medina

Urban modernization in East and West. The Hansa district in (West)Berlin (1955-1960) and the Óbuda experimental housing estate in Budapest (1958-1964)
Márkus Keller

Urban interaction across the Iron Curtain: Bologna and the Yugoslav connection in Cold War Europe
Vladimir Unkovski-Korica, Eloisa Betti

M38. Disaster and Rebuilding in Modern Port Cities

Port Cities have a long history as nodes in global economic networks; they also have a long history of resilience. Throughout history, natural or human-made disasters as well as political, economic or geographic transformations have (re)-shaped shipping patterns, ports and waterfronts, and port cities have demonstrated a unique capacity to deal with a broad range of external shocks. Port cities have adjusted, refocused, and rebuilt after major shocks including: earthquakes, fires or hurricanes, changes in sea-levels or the accumulation of silt, destruction through war or neglect of infrastructure, the loss of port functions due to shifts in global trade and shipping patterns, new techniques, or major changes in the political framework. In view of current sea-level rise and other challenges to global port cities we ask: Are port cities as nodes and places of innovation better positioned to deal with shocks, than cities in the hinterland? If so, what makes them more resilient?

This session proposes to combine two strands of vibrant historical analysis—port city research and disaster studies. It invites papers to examine specific examples of modern port cities—in Europe and beyond—and to explore questions such as: How did local, regional, national and international actors, both public and private, react to the disaster and the disruption of the network of ports and its economic functions? What form did the reconstruction take and in what way was it governed by the port functions of the city? Was the disaster used as an opportunity for improvement of the port or other urban structures and buildings? We are interested in examples ranging from Lisbon and the earthquake of 1755, to the present. We are particularly looking for papers examining the rebuilding of ports such as Rotterdam, Hamburg, or London after World War II, the transformation of harbours such as Helsinki, Gdanks, or Istanbul, after the political watersheds of 1945 and 1989/90, the change of upstream port cities such as London or Amsterdam due to the containerization of goods since the 1960s, or the rapid economic decline of former major harbours such as Liverpool.

Papers could build on network theories, innovative methodological approaches, on interdisciplinary and comparative research. We invite research that considers physical rebuilding as much as economic restructuring, social, ethnic, migratory, religious, artistic and other shifts that have occurred in the urban history of port cities around the world.

Keywords: Port Cities; Disaster; Rebuilding; Urban Planning

Period: Contemporary
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Carola Hein (USA) - TU Delft
Dirk Schubert (Germany) - Hafencity University
Pedro Garcia (Portugal) - Lusófona University

Accepted paper:

Part 1

Pozzuoli port city: a long-lasting urban and territory history
Teresa Colletta

Saint-Petersburg port through disasters
Kirill Nazarenko, Maria Smirnova

Bombay Dock Explosions: Concerns on Safety and Work at Bombay Docks in the 1940s
Shubhankita Ojha

Macau -Disaster and Rebuilding a Mediterranean Portuguese-Chinese Port City in the Far East
Rodrigo Alves Dias

Izmir and Salonica: Waterfront and Harbour Transformations Before and After Catastrophe and Contemporary Reflections
Emiliano Bugatti

Part 2

The Port of Hamburg in the 1940s and 1950s: Physical Reconstruction and Political Restructuring in the Aftermath of World War II
Christoph Strupp

Ports of Koper, Trieste and Rijeka after the Second World War: a comparative study of shifts in physical structure, economic development and political decisions
Lucija Ažman Momirski

Reshaping the Gdansk harbour - the continuous process
Piotr Lorens

Port of Savannah: Regional Resilience
Stephen Ramos

Lisbon Waterfront, the soul of a port city
Rogério Gonçalves

Local knowledge in port town planning and its meaning in the disaster recovery of Kesennuma after 311
Izumi Kuroishi
TU Delft

M39. Industrial Cities from the 19th and 20th Centuries and Heritage Conservation

Industrial cities from the Middle Ages and the early modern period, such as Falun in Sweden, Banská Štiavnica in present Slovakia and Ouru Preto in Brazil, are highly appreciated by local as well as national communities because of their historic precious-metal mining heritage, and have been inscribed on the World Heritage List. Industrialisation, though, played a crucial role in 19th-20th-century economic development worldwide, yet industrial cities originating from this period seem to be properly esteemed only in the developed world. Crespi d'Adda in Italy, inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1995, is just one example. In contrast, industrial cities in the post-soviet and post-colonial countries are rarely considered as a valuable cultural heritage as they frequently evoke ambivalent memories of an unwanted past.

The aim of the session is to present and analyse the relationship between history and heritage conservation in modern age industrial cities in Europe and worldwide. We invite papers from researchers of various academic fields, such as history, cultural anthropology, sociology, geography, architecture and heritage studies, investigating the heritage values of industrial cities from the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as the perception of those values by the relevant communities under the impact of their historical experience. We would like to know, in particular, what is the role of the different stakeholders, namely, the decision makers, heritage professionals, as well as the inhabitants, in the evaluation and subsequent conservation, or neglect and demolition of the industrial cities' heritage. Does their attitude to the history and heritage of past industrialisation change over time, and if yes, how and why? What does the preserved or destroyed industrial heritage tell us about the present society?

Searching for responses to the above questions, we expect studies which will make comparisons between two or more cities, preferably, from both the developed as well as the post-soviet and post-colonial countries.

Keywords: Industrial Cities; Modern Age; Relationship of History and Heritage; Industrial Heritage Conservation; Developed; Post-Soviet and Post-Colonial Countries

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Györgyi Németh (Hungary) - University of Miskolc
Miles Kenneth Oglethorpe (United Kingdom) - Historic Scotland
Hsiao-Wei Lin (Taiwan) - Chung Yuan University

Accepted papers:

Landscape as a heritage in European factory-towns: Between denial, alibi, and recognition
Lucas Del Biondo, Simon Edelblutte

A boomtown of the Nazi-era and its struggle for self-assurance
Andreas Butter

Revised past: The industrial city of Tampere
Marja Lähteenmäki

Brussels nineteenth century warehouses: From robust to vulnerable urban heritage
Inge Bertels, Sara Wermiel, Ine Wouters

Industrial small urban ensembles at Oporto and Lisbon: Spatialization and causalities
Gonçalo Antunes, José Lúcio, Nuno Pires Soares, Rui Pedro Julião

Rise and decline of industrial city Karabük and its social network mechanism in Turkey
Meltem Özkan Altinöz, Suat Çabuk

Spatialising heritage conservation: Melbourne’s Rialto precinct in a settler-colonial context
James P Lesh

Sugar switches: Repurposing industrial heritage in Brazil and USA
Gabriela Campagnol

Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant and the urbanization process
Adelita Souza Araujo, Jane Ferreira Victal

M40. Use of History in the Making of Urban Heritage

Historian is no longer the sole authority to tell the urban past. Urban heritage has been institutionalized and recognized in local, national and international levels in the last few decades.

From the 1960s, a series of national and international laws define preservation and safeguarding policies of historic urban areas in the framework of urban redevelopment. The law on conservation zones passed in France in 1962 and the Nairobi Recommendation adopted by the Member States of UNESCO in 1976 are important normative steps turning city centers tarnished by modernization into "urban heritage". A few years later, in 1979, city centers in Europe (Krakow, Warsaw), medinas in the Maghreb and in the Mashreq (Tunis, Damascus, Aleppo, Old Cairo) are listed on the first World Heritage List of the 1972 UNESCO Convention, which designates their heritage as outstanding universal value.

Through city conservation and rehabilitation programmes, the urban heritage has gradually replaced the “ancient”, the “old” and the “medieval” town/city. Accordingly, the history of urban heritage areas is muddled up with the history of conservation practices determined by the principle of authenticity (See. Athens Charter of 1931 and Venice Charter of 1964) and with that of regulations concerning urban planning. Thus, the urban heritage has imposed its own time on the history of cities and introduced a different history: the story of heritage making as an element of the historic evolution of cities.

The objective of the session is to restore the historicity of urban heritage making since the 1960’s. In the last fifty years, the notion of heritage has changed considerably, history-writing has undergone serious changes and even their relationship, described by David Lowenthal fifteen years ago as quiet antagonistic, has been reconsidered. The session organizers invite paper-givers to analyze this complex process through the cases of cities and towns, which have become urban heritage.

Keywords: Urban Heritage; Cultural Heritage; Contemporary Urban History

Period: 20th Century
Type: Main Session

Session organizer(s):
Gábor Sonkoly (Hungary) - Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest
Isabelle Vinson (France) - Unesco/EHESS de Paris

Accepted papers:

The museum of the city in the digital era: a benchmark or a watershed?
Carlo Maria Travaglini, Keti Lelo, Giuseppe Stemperini

Citizenship and architecture in the “European City” discourse
Daniel Purdy

Brussels as a neglected predecessor? Creating heritage in Brussels as part of modern town planning (1956-1964)
Dominik Scholz

Urban Heritage in Spandauer Vorstadt: The Courtyard of Rosenthaler Strasse 39 in the Mirror of German Memory Politics
Júlia Székely

From industrial buildings to urban landscape - revitalization in Mooca district, Sao Paulo (2002-2013)
Verônica Sales Pereira

Brazil and France inheritance preservation from 1960s to 1980s
Eloisa Petti Pinheiro

The Heritage building process in the "Val di Noto" Unesco site (IT)
Melania Nucifora

The history in modern city: development of urban heritage in globalizing Shanghai
Wei Zhuang, Song Zhang

M41. The Urban Role of Religious Houses in a Globalised and Comparative Perspective

Religious orders have played an important role in cities in different aspects. For centuries the set of religious houses, both male and female, that settled in towns had social, economic, cultural and physical impacts in cities. The interaction between religious communities and the urban world started in the medieval Europe and was enlarged in the early modern age when a large number of different religious orders settled in cities. At the same time, this relationship continued in the territories of the European expansion overseas where friars and nuns reaffirmed their influence in the colonial world.

This session aims to cross the results of the investigation developed over the relationships between religious houses and urban space in different cities, in Europe and all around the world, and obtain a globalised vision of the urban strategies of religious orders in different geographical and historical contexts. We intend to go beyond individual studies of buildings or cities and look to a wider framework. Especially welcome are comparatives perspectives that include various friaries and/or nunneries in one city, or several religious buildings of one single religious order in different cities, or even houses of different orders in cities and towns in different geographical areas. The key issues of this session will be the analysis of the urban settling typologies of religious houses and the evaluation of their impacts in the urban development, including those that occurred after the dissolution.

In the past decades the research on this subject has been essentially centred in the medieval period, and although these issues were studied in many parts of the world, they were developed especially in Europe and only within each country. In the actual scientific context, where cross approaches through different cultural and territorial realities are mostly required, a transnational perspective over this particular theme is also very necessary, considering that religious orders had precisely this universal dimension.

We welcome paper proposals dealing with the following issues:
- the settling of religious orders in towns and cities: features and processes,
- the participation of friaries and nunneries in the development of urban form: directly and indirectly,
- strategies of control of the urban space,
- the urban role of religious buildings and gardens after the dissolution of friaries,
- the new uses and perspectives of those buildings in the contemporary world.

Keywords: Religious Houses; Urban History; History of Architecture and Urbanism

Period: All Periods
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Catarina Almeida Marado (Portugal) - CES - University of Coimbra / FCHS - University Of Algarve
Maria Angélica Da Silva (Brasil) - FAU - Federal University of Alagoas

Accepted papers:

Monastic Towns as a Form of Religious Houses' Participation in Urbanization Process
Anna Anisimova

Parisian men’s relgious communities A typlogical overview of their urban presence
Preston Martin Perluss

Jesuit missions and settlements in the Captaincy of São Vicente
Renan Amauri Guaranha Rinaldi, Jane Victal

Monastic architetcure in Sicily after the 1693 earthquake: the case of Noto
Stefano Piazza

Shaping Hong Kong’s historical urban landscape: The specific contribution of religious orders and missionary societies
Puay-peng Ho, Thomas Coomans

From the position of extinct convents in the city’s morphology to the (re)definition of centrality in the city of Porto: the development of two ideas
Maria José Casanova

Broken silence. A comparative approach to the integration processes of Charterhouses in urban contexts
Blanca Del Espino Hidalgo, Francisco José García Fernández

M42. Cities Without Maps: Reconstructing Early Urban Morphologies and Appropriations of Space in Portuguese Colonial Cities

This panel proposes a multidisciplinary inquiry into urban processes especially in relation with the occupation of space. We suggest bringing urban historians with a variety of backgrounds to the table to discuss the methodological challenges of studying colonial cities that, today, show few remainders from the early modern period. We are particularly interested in the reconstitution of early colonial urban morphologies in cases where there is scant cartographical material or none at all. In order to encourage an ample comparative perspective, we call for papers on cities in South America, Africa, Asia and the Atlantic Islands. Papers should discuss the methodological potential of urban studies based on textual materials and other sources. The wider issues at stake include the possibility of identifying patterns of urban growth and urban planning across the Portuguese world, understanding articulations between spontaneous and regulated urbanism, and studying adaptations of European practices to extra-European natural and social environments. We are particularly interested in hybridity as a potential analytical category, and would welcome proposals that include a critical engagement with this concept. We are also interested in the institutions and norms that regulated urban processes or made attempts at regulating them, and would like to discuss the extent to which Portuguese colonial cities had specific characteristics distinguishing them from others.

Keywords: Portuguese Colonial Cities; Urban Morphology; Spatial Configuration; Appropriation of Space

Period: Early Modern; Modern
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Francisco Roque de Oliveira (Portugal) - Centro de Estudos Geográficos & IGOT - Universidade de Lisboa
Zoltán Biedermann (United Kingdon) - University of London

Accepted papers:

Portuguese cities unveiled: interpreting the present medina in the Maghreb
Jorge Correia

Urban Structures of Portuguese overseas expansion - a morfo-typological approach
José Manuel Fernandes

Reconstructing Lourenço Marques in the late 19th century - impacts of the urban growing
Ana Cristina Roque

Formation and evolution of Salvador’s urban plans under the gaze of João Teixeira Albernaz I
Raquel Fulino Souza

In search of old Hormuz: textual and iconographic evidences from the Portuguese period (1515-1622)
Rui Manuel Loureiro

De carte en portrait, la ville de Salvador de Bahia revisitée (XVIe-XVIIe siècles)
Guida Marques

Culture and representation as resistance. Preservation of tangible and intangible heritage in Sâo Paulo State
Jane Victal

M43. City Lights (17th-21st Centuries). Persistence and Change in Urban Lighting Technologies and Night-Time Practices

For a long time, the night has been a neglected dimension in urban history. The dark hours are often merely an afterthought, an exotic excursion into the gloomy abyss of society. The night, however, encompasses more than sex, crime or sleep – especially with the introduction of new and comprehensive lighting technologies: Street-lighting with suet and oil lamps spread in Europe since the 17th century; these were later replaced by gas reverberators and electric lighting systems. The “lighting revolution” of the 19th century contributed to a profound change of living conditions, e.g., by enabling the night-time production of goods or tighter control of nocturnal street life.

Building on the pioneering works of Wolfgang Schivelbusch (Lichtblicke, 1983), Murray Melbin (Night as Frontier, 1987) and Alain Beltran/Patrice-Alexandre Carré (La Fée et la servante, 1991), the development of lighting technologies and infrastructures as well as their societal impact has received more and more attention in history and the social sciences since the 1990s. While the electrification of modern society has been relatively well studied, there are still a number of research gaps to be filled, for example regarding the functions assigned to light, its history before and after the “lighting revolution”, and its diffusion in non-Western societies.

This session aims to investigate the evolution of urban lighting technologies and night-time practices from a comparative and multidisciplinary perspective, including history, geography, planning, sociology, and environmental studies. Focussing on illuminated spaces such as streets, buildings, shop windows or signs, it follows the ever-increasing demand for urban light since the 17th century, initially in European capitals, to the present discussions on “light pollution”. We are looking for papers that address the following questions: How were new lighting technologies and infrastructures diffused and received? Which social uses and functions were connected with artificial light over time? Who were the key actors? How did new lighting technologies change night-time practices? Were there tensions and conflicts related to this “colonisation of the night”? How were these resolved? And how did the introduction of new lighting technologies influence the symbolism and perceptions of (artificial) light and darkness? We are especially interested in case studies examining the political and social dimensions of lighting. By addressing these topics, this session seeks to open up new perspectives on the development of lighting technologies and night-time practices in different societal settings.

Keywords: Urban Lighting; Night; Light Pollution

Period: Early Modern; 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Sophie Reculin (France) - Lille 3 University; IRHIS (Septentrion Institute of Historical Research)
Hasenöhrl Ute (Germany) - Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning

Accepted papers:

Discipline the night: streetlights and night watchmen in Asturias, 1814-1920
Daniel Pérez Zapico

A Northern Latecomer - The Street Lighting of Turku (Finland) and the Image of the City
Panu Savolainen

Urban Resistance to Artificial Illumination during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
A. Roger Ekirch

“By Reason of Their Physical Limitations”: The Rise and Fall of Medical Arguments against Women’s Nightwork in the United States, 1890-1980
Peter C. Baldwin

Patrimonial Light and Power in Eighteenth Century Istanbul
Avner Wishnitzer

Lighting the Underground: London, 1863-1914
Richard Dennis

Le retour de la nuit: l'éclairage urbain impacté par le développement durable en France
Jean-Michel Deleuil

M44. Port Cities: Comparative Perspectives on Urban Stability and Public Safety (18th-21st centuries)

The coming of globalization was centrally anchored in the increased mobility of goods, people and ideas. Port cities were thus transformed in crucial hubs in this mobility age. Because of the heterogeneous social and cultural landscape associated with commerce and transport, port cities became increasingly known as insecure places. Hence the perceptions resulting from and the strategies adopted to deal with the insecurity and the search for a new sense of urban stability were especially acute in port cities. This specialist session aims to promote a discussion on urban stability as a core element in modern urban development and the strategies to deal with public safety issues in port cities in the last three centuries. From material perspectives to the more common social and cultural analysis, this is a theme that can be covered by a number of different approaches. Were urban environments planned and built influenced by security issues? How were public safety policies thought and put into practice, and what were the particularities of port cities in these matters? The answers to these questions lay in a multiplicity of topic that can be brought down to the discussion. The state, its institutions and agents are obvious central actors emerging in this period. Therefore questions of the interrelationship between central, local and multinational powers on issues as building regulations, policing and other social control institutions will be welcomed in this panel. But we also aim to discuss private strategies of security, either with approaches on community based strategies (for example neighbourhood night-watchmen associations) or the emergence of security as a business (insurance companies are also a possible theme). The organizers of this panel aim to convene a debate around comparative perspectives on individual European port cities and worldwide cities, but also on the transnational circulation of public safety debates and strategies. Because of their overseas connections, port cities are essential cases to understand local and national specificities, but also the development of transnational and global solutions, and how these different levels were progressively intermingled.

Keywords: Port Cities; Security; Urban Stability

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Gonçalo Rocha Gonçalves (Portugal) - ISCTE - University Institute of Lisbon
Flávio Borda d'Agua (Switzerland) - Université de Genève & Institut et Musée Voltaire

Accepted papers:

Surveiller le port: le cas de Naples au XVIIIe siècle
Diego Carnevale

Incorporer les ports d’Europe dans un système policier national: l’expérience napoléonienne
Aurélien Lignereux

Contrôler les marins dans la ville: les acteurs de la régulation sociale de la ville-port, à travers l’exemple du Havre au XIXe siècle
Nicolas Cochard

Projects for the security, safety and defense of Lisbon in the 19th century
Catarina Caetano da Rosa

Espaces portuaires et spatialisation de la domination coloniale. La police des circulations dans le port d’Oran (Algérie, années 1840-1880)
Emmanuel Blanchard

Surveillance as an element in the planning of Port Cities, Lisbon and Rotterdam
Magda Avelar Pinheiro, Hendrick van Dijk

Le rôle primordial des raffineries de sucre dans la lutte contre les incendies urbains à Orléans, XVIIe-XIXe siècles
Gaëlle Caillet

La vulnérabilité des villes portuaires méditerranéennes françaises et italiennes au prisme des contentieux
Mariantonia Lo Prete

M45. Urban Infrastructure and Civic Identities

Architectural historians, urban historians and other scholars interested in the formation of the modern city have devoted significant attention to the monumental expression of major transportation systems (such as railroads and subways) in the form of grand train stations, artfully designed subway entrances and underground stations.  More recently scholars interested in infrastructure and the city have concentrated on the tensions between the notion of ‘Commons’ and the extent to which the provision of public services is determined by public and private funding. However little attention has been devoted to the ways in which architects, engineers, and others gave visual form to and negotiated the often mundane but essential functional elements of transportation networks (viaducts, ventilation shafts, switching stations, signage, tiling) as well as those of other systems (waterworks, sewerage, gas, telegraph, electricity, cell-phones), each contributing to qualifying the experience of the modern city. This session invites papers that explore how and to what extent architects, engineers, designers and those involved in the conception and construction of these systems have participated in debates about the appropriate role of infrastructure in shaping the form and character of urban landscapes from the nineteenth century to the present day. To what extent did aesthetic, political or symbolic concerns influence their design?  How have changing attitudes toward these systems and the technologies they employ determined their urban presence?  How and to what extent, intentionally or accidentally, do these systems participate in the shaping of civic identities or even the representation of civic life? Please send abstracts of c.300 words, in English or French, to the session organizers by 15 October 2013, including institutional affiliation and a short biography (one paragraph). We will give preference to papers with an international comparative perspective.

Keywords: Infrastructure; Networks; Cities

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Lucy M. Maulsby (USA) - Northeastern University (Boston, Ma)
Carlos Lopez Galviz (United Kingdom) - School of Advanced Study, University of London

Accepted papers:

Reconnecting and Rebranding the Divided City: Berlin’s Transport Infrastructure after 1989
Samuel Merrill

The unrealized project of sewage station for the city of Prague in the 1st half of 20th century
Kryštof Drnek

The historical impact and contemporary design challenges of small European train stations
Maarten Van Acker

Le rôle des médias dans le processus du projet urbain en Algérie: cas du tramway de Constantine
Mounira Bouchareb

Land Reforms, Conflicts and the Plight of Indigenous Urban Populations in Cameroon, 1884-2014
Ambe J Njoh

Reconstruction post séisme en Haïti: Regard croisé sur le Bel Air et le centre ville historique de Port-au-Prince
Jessie Marie Helene Ewald Benoit

Next stop: Tertiarization - Railway developments in post-war European cities
José Pedro de Galhano Tenreiro

Urban undergrouds in the Mediterranean
Roberta Varriale

Engineering an urban society. Henri Hondermarcq and the Belgian project for the modern road in the post war era
David Peleman

Moving on Up: The Contributionof Public Urban Stairways to Pedestrian Infrastructure and Civic Identity
Jennifer Preston

M46. Meat and the City: Spaces and Social Practices, 1750-1940

The relationship between the city and the provisioning of meat presents an intriguing point of entry to study the development of the modern city.  Urban growth and rising day-to-day meat consumption reconfigured the city’s relations to its hinterlands, generated intensified public engagement with capitalist supply chains, anchored food provisioning at key urban sites, such as slaughterhouses, wholesale and retail markets, and transformed daily consumer practices, from the shopping of food to its preparation.  All in all, the spaces of meat provisioning served as the loci of shifting economic, social and cultural practices that defined a central experience of modern urban life.

The session will take as its point of departure the interlinked geographies of urban meat provisioning from the mid-eighteenth to the early twentieth century.  In general, we look at how meat provisioning both shaped and was shaped by urban modernization, and how it redefined public and private responsibilities in sustaining urban dwellers.  More specifically, we wish to consider issues such as meat supply chains linking city to hinterlands, meat processing and distribution, the daily practices of household provisioning and meat consumption, concerns over public health standards and regulations, shifting notions of clean and unclean, safe and contagious, as well as relations between humans and animals.  The spaces and practices surrounding meat provisioning mirror broader changes in major western cities in the period, and thus provide a way to investigate relations between different levels and sources in urban history.  For each theme, building on interests generated by leading scholars in the field, the session aims to explore new perspectives and methodologies that further our understanding of the relation between the city and its meat supplies.

Keywords: Meat Markets; Urban Provisioning; Space; Modernity

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Mikkel Thelle (Denmark) - Center For Urban History - Aarhus University
Gergely Baics (USA) - Barnard College, Columbia University

Accepted papers:

Markets, abattoirs and meat retailing. Changing food supply, commercialization and meat consumption in Barcelona, 1850-1950
Manel Guàrdia, José Luis Oyón, Nadia Fava

Urban meat geographies in Stockholm 1864-1936
Jenny Lee

From exterior to interior.How the transfer of pig slaughtering from the countryside to the city affected the quality assessment of pork in Denmark 1880-1920
Tenna Jensen

“Varnish shoes” for the city: Public slaughterhouse and the reform of meat supply in fin-de-siecle Moscow
Anna Mazanik

MEAT-MILIEU: Medicalization, Aestheticization and Productivity Between the City and the Pampas, 1868-1935
Fabiola Lopez-Duran, Nikki Moore

Buy, sell, eat: meat consumption, market and social circuits in São Paulo; 1852-1927
Ana Lanna

Cruelty in Smithfield: meat trade and animal law in nineteenth-century London
Takashi Ito

The role of the city administration as regulator of meat trade
Simion Caltia

M47. A Multitude of 'In-Betweens' in African Urban Spaces

For quite some years now, scholars working on the 20th century history of architecture and urban planning are including non-Western regions. And as the literature is growing, we are getting insight on how urban spaces have been conceived and planned in hitherto neglected regions, among which Africa. In this session, however, we start from the observation that, although many (post-)colonial imaginings were falsely claimed to be realized, often a wide gap exists between the theory of urban design, with its corresponding discourse, and the actually-realised landscape. ‘In-between’ plan and implementation frequently a myriad of intricate and complex processes occurred, often literally resulting in ‘in-between spaces’.

We welcome proposals that will expand on these multitude of in-betweens in African urban spaces. Although we look for papers that explicitly address the very spatiality, both in terms of conception and realization, of this gap between (post-)colonial plan and implementation for all kind of projects, ranging from architecture to urban planning as well as engineering and infrastructure, a wide range of in-betweens may be touched upon: discrepancies between (post-)colonial ideologies and urban planning models – often a metropolitan or foreign creation; the site-relatedness in each territory; the influence of world events; the different points of view at the institutional level; and last but not least, the agency of local actors – including processes of appropriation and re-appropriation of  urban spaces.

The ‘in-between spaces’ resulting from the incomplete or partial implementation of plans may be approached from a historical perspective, as well as by tracing back from contemporary urban spaces in African cities. Essentially defined by an intermingling of the built and the unbuilt, the rural and the urban, the formal and the informal, the African and the European, the desired and the undesired, an urban void and a dynamic state of flux, these ‘in-between spaces’ can be considered as intermediate (or hybrid) spaces, mediating between various places, times and ideologies. We specifically invite papers that elaborate on this conception of the 'in-between space', as we believe that this may help us to tackle traditional dichotomies, so common in the research on African cities, and enable us to capture more accurately the diversity and complexity of African urban spaces.

Keywords: Africa; Urban Spaces; In-Between

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Luce Beeckmans (Belgium) - Ghent University
Liora Bigon (Israel) - European Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Accepted papers:

Spaces of resistance in Luanda: 'how do [small] gains become prisons'?
Sílvia Leiria Viegas

The Urban North: An in-between Space
Deborah Pellow

The multiple layers of Myriad space-time practices on subaltern territories a debate from the perspective of Cape Verde
Andreia Moassab

Navigating 'off radar'. Liminal spaces in the city center of colonial/postcolonial Lubumbashi, DR Congo
Johan Lagae

Minority reports: planned ‘indigenous districts’ in Maputo and Luanda
Madalena Cunha Matos

Lagos, Rem Koolhaas, and the spaces in-between
Elisa Dainese

Cotonou et ses dynamiques d’inclusion dans un espace global
Monica Coralli, Didier Houénoudé

“In-Between” Global and Local
Ana Cristina Tostoes

M48. "Paris of the ...": Negotiating the Parisian Urban Model in Eastern European and Latin American Cities, 1850-1930

The grand rebuilding of Paris by Napoleon III (1851-1870) and its location at the center of European and trans-Atlantic intellectual, political, and cultural networks had a profound impact on the rest of the world. In the 19th and early 20th century international travelers as well as local elites—planners, architects, journalists, artists, writers, and others—dubbed newly modernizing cities throughout Europe and the Americas as the “Paris of the East,” the “Paris of the South,” or the “Paris of” another notable territory outside France, using references and comparisons to the French metropolis as a multivalent trope to describe their own passage into modern life.  Over time, however, after striving to invent or discern a “Paris” in their own backyard, some urban reformers, boosters, and intellectuals in these far-flung cities came to embrace the opposite goal—that of distancing themselves from Parisian resemblances and influences in favor of local identities and traditions. This complex relationship with Paris was especially prominent in Latin America and Eastern Europe, two regions situated on the immediate periphery of Western modernity, both with aspirations to achieve a level not only of economic development but also of cultural achievement on par with the French example.  While historians have long compared these areas in order to understand the dynamics of modernization and nation-building in a context of economic dependency, little attention has been paid to the similarities in their urban histories, most notably their experiences of metropolitan expansion, urban reform, migration and tourism, consumerism, bohemianism, modernism, and the many varieties of cultural nationalism.  The objective of this session is to reopen and reinvigorate this comparison of the borderlands of modern Western urbanity by bringing together the different narratives of these imagined Parises and their alternatives, as they were articulated between the 1850s and the 1930s in the urban spaces of several Latin American and Eastern European cities. The subthemes that we would like to explore are:
- Cultural translations/re-imaginings/mappings of Paris in Latin American and East European cities
- Agents behind the French link and their contributions to urban renewal and/or urban modernism
- Connections between Paris-influenced urban modernization projects, tourism, and/or immigration
- Changing local uses of “being Parisian” as cultural capital or a benchmark of “being modern”
- Contested visions of Paris and its spaces within the same urban cultural context
- Roles of the Parisian model in the search for a local urban tradition or an authentic urban geography
- Challenges to the Paris dependency in expressions of modernism, nationalism, or urban planning.

Keywords: Comparative Urban History; Transnational Influences; Eastern Europe; Latin America; Paris

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Alexander Vari (USA) - Marywood University
Brian Bockelman (USA) - Ripon College, Northern Illinois University

Accepted papers:

Parisian Obelisks in the Ecuadorian Andes: The Consumption and Re-Imagination of French Commemorative Architecture and Geodesic Science
Ernesto Capello

De-territorializing Paris: Antun Gustav Matoš and South Slav Discourses on Modernity
Wladimir Fischer

Theaters and the Creation of a Brazilian Paris in São Paulo, 1900-1930
Aiala Levy

“Paris of the Orient”: Conceptualization of the Paris Image in the Mindsets of Ottoman Intelligentsia at the End of the Nineteenth Century
Ahmet Erdem Tozoglu

Cabarets, the Dance Apache, and the ‘Elegant’ Tango: Buenos Aires Re-Imagines Paris in Popular Culture, 1910-1920
Kristen McCleary

City of light, city of spires: the Paris-Prague connection
Karla Huebner

A tropical “mini-metropolis”: San José, Costa Rica (1880-1930)
Florencia Quesada

M49. Paper Cities: Urban Portraits in Photographic Books

Cities have always been incredibly photogenic places. Panoramic cityscapes configure an early and important photographic domain, while the so called ‘street photography’ persisted as one of the most popular genres within the documentary style. From the very initial years of the photographic medium, to the later democratic turn of photographic practices, or to the recent age of digital and immaterial pictures, cities have remained attractive subjects for the photographer’s eye.

While photography reaffirms its central role in visually conveying and proposing urban identities, the book – and especially the photographic book – also appears as a crucial agent in the historic processes of city representation. Though cities seem always too complex to be accurately portrayed, the book device carries supplementary qualities for such a task: not only is it invested with an ancient authority related to knowledge and truthfulness, but its narrative nature also turns it into the perfect medium by which city stories can be told. Additionally, photographic books on cities are also fruitful domains where visual and textual messages meet to create more complex and complete depictions of urban life, often combining poetic and objective accounts through the personal voices of writers and photographers.

With regard to urban and city representation, and especially after the documentary vogue of the 1930s, the encounter between literature and photography has been particularly fruitful, generating outstanding examples like 'Paris de Nuit' (Brassaï and P. Morand, 1933), 'La Banlieue de Paris' (R. Doisneau and B. Cendrars, 1949), or 'Lisboa: Cidade Triste e Alegre' (Lisbon: a Sad and Joyful City, V. Palla and C. Martins, 1959), to name but a few. The prolific production of photographic books raises imperative questions: How can a city be visually read in the pages of a book? How do photo-books on cities contribute and influence historical discourse? Can a history of a city be told by its book-shaped portraits? What kind of word-and-image relationships are present in photobooks and how do they reinforce identity building phenomena? How are we to address the categories of documentary and fiction in these particular city portraits?

In this session, we are particularly interested in papers dealing with these questions and addressing book-shaped portraits of cities since 1900 to the present. In order to examine this phenomenon from a wider perspective, we also welcome presentations covering different geographic contexts and encourage comparative approaches from varied disciplinary backgrounds.

Keywords: Photography; City Portraits; Books; Word and Image; Urban Representation

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Susana S. Martins (Portugal) - Institute for Art History / Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Anne Reverseau (Belgium) - Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Accepted papers:

Blueprint: Typology and urban space in "Homestead"
Chris Balaschak

"Variétés" and the Surrealist Aesthetics of Urban Picture Spreads
Steven Jacobs

Urban Photography, Memory and the Simultaneity of Past and Present in German Cities after 1945
Johanna Blokker

Nazi Stereoscopic Photo Books of Vienna and Prague: Geopolitical Propaganda Collides with a Distinctive Visual Medium
Douglas Klahr

The Rhythms of the Street: The Photo book as Walkscape
Steven Humblet

City from the sky. Images and words for the reading and knowledge of urban areas
Annarita Teodosio

M50. Urban Design for Mussolini, Stalin, Salazar, Hitler and Franco During the Interwar Period

Urban design played a central role for the European dictatorships during the 20th century, it served to legitimate the regime, to produce agreement, to demonstrate power, efficiency and speed, it communicated the social, as well as design projects, of the dictatorial regimes domestically and internationally, it tied old experts, as well as new, to the regime. Dictatorial urban design also played an important role after the fall of the dictatorships: It became the object of structural and verbal handling strategies: of demolition, of transformation, of reconstruction, of forgetting, of suppressing, of re-interpretation and of glorification. The topic area is, therefore, both historical and relevant to the present day. The discussion of the topic area is, like it or not, always embedded in the present state of societal engagement with dictatorships.

In order to even be able to discuss all of these aspects, different conceptual decisions are necessary. In retrospect, these may seem to many as self-evident, although they are anything but. Our thesis is that there are three methodological imperatives, especially, which allow an expanded approach to the topic area “urban design and dictatorship”. First and above all, the tunnel view, focused on individual dictatorships and neglecting the international dimension, must be overcome. Second, the differences in urban design over the course of a dictatorship, through an appropriate periodisation, should be emphasised. Third, we must strive for an open, flexible, but complex concept of urban design. The main focus lies on the urban design of the most influential dictatorships of the first half of the 20th century: Soviet Union, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, including the urban design of the autarky periods in Portugal and Spain.

After all, urban design is not just a product of specific historic circumstances. It is a form that continues to have long-term effects, which demonstrates its usefulness and adaptability throughout this process. The urban design products undoubtedly still recall the dictatorial rule under which they were created. However, they are more than a memory space. They are also a living space of the present. They can and should be discussed with respect to their spatial and functional utility for today and tomorrow. Such a perspective is a given for the citizens of a city, but also for city marketing, having marvellous consequences. Only when we do not exclude this dimension a priori, even in academic discussions, can we do justice to the products of dictatorships.

And finally, the view of the urban design of dictatorships can and must contribute to the questioning of simplified and naive conceptions of dictatorships. With urban design in mind, we can observe how dictatorships work and how they were able to prevail. In Europe, these questions are of the highest actuality.

Keywords: Urban Design; Dictatorship; History; Europe

Period: 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Max Welch Guerra (Germany) - Bauhaus-University Weimar
Harald Bodenschatz (Germany) - Technische Universität Berlin
Christian von Oppen (Germany) - Bauhaus-University Weimar

Accepted papers:

Sacred Capital of Josef Stalin: Dreams and Reality, Propaganda and Urgent Needs in Moscow of 1930s
Olga Andreevna Zinovieva

The redesign of Italian historic urban landscapes under the Fascism: receptions and perceptions
Caterina Franchini

Portuguese urban design under the dictatorship of Salazar – João Aguiar and the Colonial Urbanization Office
Paulo Tormenta Pinto

Regaining Power by Efficiency. Walter Christaller, Gottfried Feder and Efficiency Discourses in Urban Planning of Interwar Germany
Karl R. Kegler

Nazi Germany like a Pattern (Politics and Public Space in Slovakia in the Years 1938 – 1945)
Martin Pekar

Stalinization of Estonian town planning: visions and heritage
Siim Sultson

Provision of Housing during the New State Regime. The urban morphology of Lisbon residential neighborhoods (1933-1950)
Maria Amélia Cabrita, Teresa M Marat-Mendes

Urban design’s principles in the new towns from the Thirties in Italy and the Soviet Union
Dunia Mittner

M51. Managing Change in Historic Settlements

This session aspires to explore processes and drivers of change in the manmade and the natural environment of traditional settlements, locating, at the same time, sustainable ways of protecting and enhancing the surrounding environment and the quality of life.

In the last four decades, there have been drastic alterations in the natural and built environment of many traditional settlements, ranging from changes in population numbers and changes in space syntax due to aggressive or unregulated development to changes in the perception of culture and heritage due to the museumification of tradition to cater for the market. Such factors have severely affected patterns of everyday life, in a way that can be reflected in the abrupt disconnection of local communities from the natural and the built environment, for example when the heart of traditional settlements are diminished to a mere scenery as tourist attractions.

With the advent of cultural tourism and urban regeneration schemes, lead by international cultural organisations (as UNESCO, ICOMOS et al.) and in line with sustainable development, the session aims to gain a holistic view of the situation, drawing upon multiple scientific areas (urban planning, architecture, heritage management, economic valuation, ethnography, educational and communication patterns).

The session aspires to examine specific localities/ case studies that include historic settlements in diverse settings which have undergone significant structural changes, but which maintain intimate relationships with their ancient past. In order to safeguard comparative data, certain common denominators of the settlements have been established: i. their long palimpsestic history (7th c. AD onwards); ii. changes that could be acknowledged in their size, population number, social and economic character etc. in the last 100 years; iii. their status as touristic or potentially touristic destinations (some relationship with World Heritage Site status); iv. their protection from a legal framework established at the national scale.

The goal of the session is to draw conclusions on the development patterns of characteristic traditional settlements and methodological tools that have been used to locate drivers and process of change and develop knowledge of possible ways to safeguard the historic cultural elements of natural and built environment in creative and sustainable ways. Furthermore, it aspires to nurture a comparative and intercultural dialogue through different research specialisations that will lead to new perspectives on change in historic settlements and potentially to the creation of new networks and collaborations.

Keywords: Historic Settlements; Cultural Heritage Management; Cultural Tourism

Period: Contemporary
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Sam Turner (United Kingdom) - Newcastle University
Katerina Chatzikonstantinou (Greece) - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Stelios Lekakis (Greece) - Centre for Applied Archaeology, University College London

Accepted papers:

Tourism as a panacea for historic centres’ development. Limits and opportunities for a sustainable future
Heleni Porfyriou, Laura Genovese

Architecture of tourism vs traditional settlements in Greece in the 1960's and 1970's. The case of Mykonos and Rhodes
Vassilios Colonas

Integrating historic landscape research and spatial planning to develop a sustainable cultural heritage management in Flanders (Belgium)
Niels Dabaut, Veerle Van Eetvelde

Before these suburban streets: the legibility of change in 20th century Tyne & Wear
Sarah Collins

Understanding Trends on Urban Heritage Research in Asia
Gabriel Victor Caballero, Ana Pereira-Roders

Transformation factors of traditional settlements on the islands of the Aegean Sea. Mykonos as a case study
Georgios Tsilimigkas, Aikaterini Chatzikonstantinou, Leonidas Liakos

S01. Nested Worlds: Owners, Main Tenants and Subtenants

The absolute rental value of many buildings is distorted when we merely observe the basic rents paid to owners by numerous tenants.  Often, the main tenant lets out parts of his  building to other occupants thus defraying his basic rent.  This session seeks to discover the frequency of such types of rental through the call for papers from those researchers having pertinent archival informaton which might cast light on this little-known aspect of urban dwellings.  Rodney Hilton first discussed this issues in his work on burgage tenure « Some problems of urban rental property in the Middle Ages » ; several examples involving Lyon have been published by Marie-Laure Ville [VILLE MARIE-LAURE,  Between «commerce and urban life»: merchants and the management of housing in XVIIIth century Lyon, Città e Storia, Anno II, n. 2  /  luglio-dicembre 2007].  No systematic study into this question exists.

Various questions arise when considering the nexus linking owners to their tenants and the latter to possible subtenants through the device of subletting.

1) Most generally, what types of archival data are available which might allow a critical assessment of selection criteria between main tenants and owners ?

2) More specifically, can historians marshal evidence from various institutional owners so as to understand how tenant selection was decided

3) In particular, what general policies dictated tenant selection in the case of large-scale rental units ?  (Various discriminatory determinants might be cited Racial : redling , religious : ghettoes, financial : low-income housing).

4) Further refining the above factors, we could ask ourselves to what extent was subletting practiced in cities and what conditions led to such practices.  In this case, we must take into account a widespread practice in preindustrial cities where living space was manifestedly limited from cases in contemporary cities was rental space is often limited but where a principle determinant is either high rents or rent-controlled housing.  In other words, instead of systematically allowing the market to set prices often rentals are alloted through tenant protection and this protector might consequently inform rental hierarchies.

5) Finally, returning the total rental value of a given property, it would useful to understand under what conditions tenants are authorized to sublease and why a owners would accept such arrangement would clearly siphon off a non negligeable percentage of their property’s potential yield.

6) Furthermore, it would be more than useful to know what types of rent control /rent limits have existed in cities throught the course of the modern and contemporary eras and what incidence these controls may have had on common rental practices since subleasing is often a connivance to take advantage of rent controls.

Keywords: Subtenants; Rental Properties; Landlord Hierarchies

Period: All Periods
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Preston Perluss (France) - Université Pierre Mendès
Paola Lanaro (Italy) - Ca’ Foscari University of Venice

Accepted papers:

Between Communitarian Cohesion and Socio-Economic Conflicts. The Cazachod Market in the Ghetto of Ancona (XVIII Century)
Luca Andreoni

Houses and workshops. Some notes about tenancy and sub-tenancy in 18th century Venice
Riccardo Cella

Middle-class suburban lodgers in Dublin (1908 and 1911): an essential part of the (sub)urban economy?
Ruth McManus

Subleasing in Rome in the interwar years
Marco Teodori

S02. The Myth of Troy in the Urban Imagery of Europe: from the Middle Ages to the Present Day

Ever since the Middle Ages the memory of the splendour, fall, and posthumous legacy of the great cities of antiquity have helped to shape the urban imagery of Europe; they triggered an endless repertoire of topoi and exempla which not only fired the imagination of artists and writers, but also made it possible to interpret the history of the world and the role played in it by cities. A unique and constant place in this context enjoyed the myth of Troy: the first literary town of European poetry, symbol par excellence of war tragedies, but at the same time – as starting point of the opposite wanderings of Aeneas and Ulysses – remote birthplace of Roman history (and from a certain point of view of Greek identity too). It is this multifaceted significance of the Homeric town that inspired generations of poets and painters, dreamers and princes, humanists and travellers, who spread its fame, name, and image in royal courts and country fairs, libraries and galleries, theatre stages and – and more recently – cinema.

In the past few years many studies have been published on single episodes of the artistic and literary fortunes of the myth of Troy, from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth century. Nevertheless, it is precisely the richness and variety of those fortunes that so far hindered an all-embracing understanding of their evolution, based on a broad comparison of case studies (broad from a geographical and a chronological point of view, but also in terms of methods and disciplines involved).

The purpose of the session is to overcome the narrowness of specialisms and take stock – in the long term, with a comparative approach open to the contribution of different disciplines – of the long cultural history of one of the founding myths of European urban identity.

Keywords: Troy; Urban Imagery; Literary Towns; Urban Iconography

Period: All Periods
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Marco Folin (Italy) - University of Genoa
Monica Preti (France) - Musée du Louvre

Accepted papers:

The Legacy of Troy: the Myth of Diomedes and the Foundation of Cities in Southern Italy
Bianca de Divitiis

Searching Troy through the iconography of na unknown city
Isabella Di Leonardo

The digital Troy: from early excavations to modern cinema
Zeynep Akture

S03. The Urban Towerscape: The Power of Towers in Medieval and Early Modern Urban Society

As the fanciful skylines of contemporary Dubai or post-Perestroika Moscow demonstrate, modern city centres are passionately inclined to build upwards. Besides staggering land prices, functional accumulation or broadcasting requirements, less pragmatic motivations such as pride, distinction and competition incite urban builders to reach to the sky.  Likewise, but on a smaller scale, towers were an essential part of the medieval and early modern cityscape. Throughout the Ancien Régime, church towers, belfries, town walls, campaniles, military donjons, Geschlechtertürme, staircase turrets and lighthouses constituted bold towerscapes that in some cases, such as medieval Bologna, are properly described as a ‘Manhattan’ avant la lettre. Besides their basic functions (e.g. time indication, urban defence, prison buildings, stocks, etc.), these towers had an equally important religious, political or social sign function. They dominated the exterior view of the urban skyline, as well as the spatial perception and orientation within the urban interior. In this sense, they formed powerful mental beacons for both transient visitors and permanent inhabitants. They inspired artists and might have facilitated the cartographic survey of the urban space.

A wide array of sources inform us on where, when and why urban towers were build and how they coloured the urban image and local memory: building accounts, administrative records, architectural treatises, literary city descriptions, travel accounts and pictorial representations such as city seals, paintings and maps.

We especially favour cultural, architectural historical and social geographical approaches, departing from the concept of the ‘city as text’. How did towers affect the ‘imageability’ (the visual and sonic quality) and subjective perception of the urban space? We encourage both studies of the morphology (shape and iconographical program) and syntax (location and spatial integration) of urban towers. Even though the focus lies on the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, comparisons with the semiotics, logistics and ‘branding’ of modern towerscapes are possible.

Keywords: Urban Towers; Architectural History; Urban Semiotics; Social Topography; Urban Memory

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Jelle De Rock (Belgium) - Ghent University
Bram Vannieuwenhuyze (Belgium) - Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Kuleuven)
Merlijn Hurx (Netherlands) - Universiteit Utrecht (Uu)

Accepted papers:

Looking for viewpoints: exploring Brussels urban panoramas at the age of the Spanish Habsburgs
Cecilia Paredes, Stéphane Demeter

Towers in Medieval Urban Society and Landscape: campaniles, town and seigniorial towers in the North-West of Italy
Silvia Beltramo

Towers in Towns in Central Europe in the Twelfth to Fourteenth Centuries
Katalin Szende

Town fortifications as support for heraldic display. Meaning and message. The case study of Cluj (Romania)
Radu Lupescu

S04. Sex and the City: Morality, Law and Sexual Behaviour in the Pre-Modern City

Historians are accustomed to think about medieval and early modern society as a hierarchical pyramid-shaped society, while in reality the population was scattered throughout different neighbourhoods in the city to which they partly rendered its reputation. In recent scholarship however the city, as well as the suburban areas, are often seen as a homogeneous space that is associated with paradoxical assessments. On the one hand cities are considered as ‘free havens’, where the anonymity allowed city-dwellers to live with fewer constraints concerning moral codes of conduct and less prominent family ties. Moreover, as the multiple and competitive levels of authority could not always be adjusted to each other, social control tended to become less strict. However, recent scholars, like Katherine Lynch and Gervase Rosser, have firmly taken an opposite position, stating that the many urban associations and social networks citizens belonged to also exerted regulatory and controlling functions for city dwellers. Furthermore, scholars have pointed at coercive processes as not only secular and ecclesiastical authorities but also many associations tried to put order to city life. The same paradoxical images return in scholarship concerning the suburbs. On the one hand this urban fringe is often denoted as a marginal region; on the other hand, the urban fringe was characterized by residences of the nobility and other wealthy townsmen.

Still, it remains largely unclear how social behaviour, in this case sexual behaviour was regulated in different parts of the city and in the suburban regions and to what extent the spatial organization of cities was important for this regulation. Furthermore the discrepancy between regulation and daily practice has too often been overlooked. Therefore, this session will try to investigate the relationship between sexual behaviour (in normative sources and other juridical sources displaying daily experiences) and the use of the (sub)urban space. The proposed papers should therefore preferably center around one of the following topics:
- The accepted sexual standard by different competing juridical authorities and their relation to social control.
- The range of different sexual standards according to different groups present in the city and/or suburbs (from settled bourgeois to prostitutes).
- The spatial dimension of social control and its connection to the topography of wealth.
- Self-regulatory mechanisms in the city: e. g. the use of honour by kin, neighbours, members of craft guilds… e.a. in order to keep fellow citizens in line.

Keywords: Moral Conduct; Sexual Behaviour; Law; Social Control; Social Topography

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Anke De Meyer (Belgium) - University of Antwerp
Peter Stabel (Belgium) - University of Antwerp
Tineke Van De Walle (Belgium) - University of Antwerp

Accepted papers:

Love, sex and violence in small towns in the 17th and 18th century Poland
Piotr Miodunka

Having Different Morals in the Ottoman City: The Destruction of Balaban District
Isil Cokugras

No longer invisible. Female sodomy in the early modern Southern Netherlands (1400-1650)
Jonas Roelens

Defending Sexual Behaviour in Church Courts: Canongate, Scotland, 1600-1660
Alice Glaze

S05. Healthscaping Premodern Urban Communities

Premodern urban public health policies and especially practices touching on preventive rather than curative measures are a research area yet to be explored extensively. Until recently, medical and environmental history’s main focus steered towards post-plague epidemiology, the development of medical humoural theory, or hospital institutions offering curative care. Social and medical historians, together with archaeologists, are however increasingly engaging in interdisciplinary research into preventive health measures directed at and/or implemented by an urban public, challenging the stereotype of the fetid medieval city and on the basis of documents and artefacts of practice, rather than the traditional set of urban statutes and medical treatises. Key questions concern the development and application of public-health policies beyond those taken in the face of immediate health threats such as plague outbreaks. How did urban authorities, organizations, and individuals attempt to regulate sanitation, manage waste and provide for fresh drinking water and clean air? How did they promote hygiene on the streets, and facilitate perceived health-enhancing practices among urban dwellers, such as bathing? Might public policy at times clash with corporate or individual interests, and, conversely, did informal networks or corporate associations initiate their own public health measures? What was the role of religion in shaping attitudes towards public health? To which extent were authorities and individuals informed by contemporaneous medical-humoural theories concerning non-natural factors such as environment, clean air, humidity and its aetiological effects? These are some questions this session aims to explore from an interdisciplinary perspective, bringing together historians and archaeologists with expertise spanning regionally diverse urban communities.

Possible session topics might address:
- Private legal nuisance complaints and public response in relation to environmental theory;
- Material sources, practices and environmental healthscaping;
- Public health, waste disposal, industries and zonal restrictions;
- Approaches to public health, demography and town size;
- Cross pollination between medical theory and practice;
- Medical-humoural theory, building prescripts and practices concerning locality, access to clean water and air;
- Social, gendered and religious attitudes towards access to public health measures and space;
- Tensions between public, corporate and private attitudes towards public health measures;
- Public health, politics and socio-religious control;
- Religious attitudes towards space and pollution;
- Ethics of the healthy body and soul in religious thought;
- Aesthetic aspects of the just city.

Keywords: Public Health; Urban Communities; Social Justice; Public Sphere; Comparative History

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Claire Weeda (Netherlands) - University of Amsterdam
Guy Geltner (Netherlands) - University of Amsterdam

Accepted papers:

Dealing with Dirt: Strategies for a Clean City in the Premodern Low Countries
Janna Coomans

Health, medical knowledge, and governance: healthscaping in early modern Istanbul
Nukhet Varlik

Private rights and public health: Mainz, Worms, and Speyer in the late Middle Ages
Lucy Christine Barnhouse

From theory to practice in premodern public health
Guy Geltner

S06. L'eau dans la vie quotidienne des villes europeennes (XIVe-XVIe siècles)

Malgré le grand développement qu’a connu la recherche sur les thèmes de l’eau et des mentalités, l’étude de l’attitude  idéologique et culturelle de la société du Moyen-Age tardif dans sa relation à l’eau n’a pas encore été abordée avec suffisamment de profondeur dans le champ de l’Histoire : sa représentation dans l’imaginaire particulier et la manifestation de cette représentation dans les domaines religieux et civil, dans les différentes actions et attitudes de ses membres, individuellement ou collectivement, au cours de leur vie quotidienne ainsi qu’à certains moments et lors de certains faits ponctuels particulièrement significatifs sur un plan social, familial ou personnel.

Dans d'autres occasions et colloques on a travaillé sur d'autres aspects relatifs à l'eau aux siecles médiévales et modernes, mais dans aucun cas sur ceux que nous proposons maintenant et qui dans l'actualité attirent l'intérêt des historiens du monde urbain.

C’est pour cette raison que, au cours de cette session, nous étudierons la place de l’eau dans les fêtes, les rites et les cérémonies civiles urbaines (dans les milieux populaires, de la noblesse et des courtisans), en cherchant à percevoir les différences et les similitudes entre les attitudes et les comportements des membres des différents secteurs et groupes sociaux.

Nous réfléchirons également sur la fonction de l’eau dans des questions liées à la vie quotidienne, et relatives aux usages et aux comportements à table, dans le domaine de l’hygiène et dans celui de la santé de l’âme et du corps, ainsi que la manière dont elle est utilisée comme ressource rhétorique dans le discours chronistique  et dans d’autres sources écrites. En définitive, une analyse du rôle de l’eau dans la vision médiévale du monde  et des sentiments qu’elle inspire aux hommes et aux femmes de la société des XIVe, XVe et XVIe siècles, en tentant d’établir, dans chaque cas, des points de comparaison entre les attitudes et les comportements sociaux autour et à propos de l’eau parmi les villes de différents royaumes et territoires d’Europe, lors de la dernière étape du Moyen-Age et la première de l’ère moderne.

Keywords: Eau; Représentation; Mentalité; Attitude; Coutume; Rites; Superstition; Imaginaire

Period: Middle Ages; Early Modern
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
María Isabel Del Val Valdivieso (Spain) - Université De Valladolid
Rica Amrán (France) - Université de Picardie Jules Verne-Amiens
Isabel Maria Marinho Vaz De Freitas (Portugal) - Universidade Portucalense - Infante D. Henrique

Accepted papers:

À la recherche de l’eau dans la documentation locale de la région portugaise de Óbidos
Manuela Santos Silva

De Balneis Porrectanis: alabanzas de una ciudad balneario entre los siglos XIV y XVI
Cristina de la Rosa, Ana Isabel Martín

Historical narratives about rivers and communication in Portuguese urban spaces in the late Middle Ages
Covadonga Valdaliso

L'eau dans la vie quotidienne de Castille vu à traves de "Lsa Cantigas de Santa María"
Juan Carlos Martín Cea

S07. Archives, Architecture and Antiquarianism: New Approaches to Historical Memory in Renaissance Cities

The session focuses on the theme of historical memory in the cities during Renaissance. In particular, it builds on recent interest for the history of archives, for the historically changing ways of producing and preserving documentation, and for local urban and architectural responses to antiquity, to consider with an interdisciplinary and comparative approach different cases and methods of preserving and using knowledge about the past and awareness of its importance in the urban centres of Italy and Europe between the XIV and XVI centuries.

The historical memory of cities was expressed both in documents and in monuments, both from antiquity and from the more recent past. In turn, through specific programmes of decoration and storage, documents were monumentalised, while monuments were strategically used by urban communities as a living testament to the ancient origins of the city and increasingly discussed as themselves documents of the past by antiquarians who also often worked in archives.

How were these literary and material sources used to construct a sense of a city’s own identity? How did such use differ from the practices of central states and, say, royal historiographers?

The session calls for papers relating to the creation and organization of city archives, the existence of places and methods of preserving documents before the creation of a stable archive, as well as the compilation of documentary registers and of antiquarian histories of a particular city. Attention will also be devoted on how historical memory affected the urban development of a city, for example through the choice of a particular site for the creation of an archive or because of the need to preserve and/or re-use an element of historical relevance.

The session will also consider other forms of preserving historical memory, for example the public display of “memories” by single members of the élite as well as by wider urban communities.

Keywords: Historical Memory; Archives; Antiquarian Culture; Local Antiquities

Period: Early Modern
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Bianca de Divitiis (Italy) - ERC / University of Naples Federico II
Filippo De Vivo (United Kingdom) - ERC / Birkbeck College, University Of London

Accepted papers:

Communal Palaces as public Archives of Civic Memories (North-Central Italy, 13-16th Centuries)
Marco Folin

Coping with the French descent: memory, cultural heritage, and linguistic identity in vernacular Neapolitan chronicles in the Age of the Italian Wars (1494-1503)
Chiara de Caprio

Defining the city’s identity in the Venetian mainland through inscriptions, documents and political rhetoric: the “Monte di Pietà vecchio” of Brescia (late 15th Century)
Enrico Valseriati

Epigraphy and the shifting of early modern memorial cultures from the antique to the modern
Harald Hendrix

S08. Patterns of Crime and Gender in an Urban Setting ca 1700-1900

The historiography of crime has been expanding since the 1980s and historians are now using gender as an analytical category to explain judicial and criminal processes. However, the historiography on crime and gender has not yet looked in depth at patterns of crime (socially and geographically defined) in the city and the differences between male and female criminals. Criminology theories have given some insights on these differences but very little use has been made of this research in history (Godfrey, 2008; Lawrence, 2012). This session aims at bringing together urban and crime historians, geographers and criminologists to discuss the interactions between crime location and gender, to underline their evolution and to give new insights upon the use of urban spaces.

Key question:
• How did urban development influence patterns of crime?

Secondary questions:
• How did gender influence these patterns?
• Are changing patterns of crime linked to changing patterns of consumption?
• How does the study of crime patterns and gender reflect people’s use of the urban space and mobility patterns?

Important structural changes in the urban environment took place during the period 1700-1900; industrialization, rapid urbanization, pauperization and the development of transport led to new ways of using the urban space and committing crimes. But these urban modifications also had an impact on social processes and the role of men and women in society. The debate on private and public spheres and the emphasis on the female ideal in a domestic environment were linked with these urban changes. Their influences on crime patterns have to be questioned: for instance, did women commit more crimes near their house than men, as the theory of routine activity leads us to believe (Clarke and Felson, 1993)? Patterns of crime in relation to the urban space may also have changed according to patterns of consumption: the presence of women in the public house gradually decreased over the centuries, leading possibly to a decrease of female crime in this particular setting. Similarly, the development of new entertainment facilities in the suburbs of the city in the nineteenth century, mainly directed and/or opened to the lower classes, could become places of high pickpocketing and drunkenness rates, with a gender ratio different from the pub setting and its surroundings.

Keywords: Urban Space; Crime; Gender

Period: Early Modern; 19th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Marion Pluskota (Netherlands) - University of Leiden
Drew Gray (United Kingdom) - Northampton University

Accepted papers:

Criminal behaviour: sex, gender and urban spaces
Deborah Simonton

Locating the crime and hunting the criminal: mapping and interpreting the geographical pattern of criminal activity in the streets of early 20th Century London
Kallum Dhillon

Using geospatial data to examine masculinity and street violence in mid-Victorian Liverpool
Zoe Alker

S09. Passports as Entry Tickets? Urban Migrants and their Identity Documents in the Long Nineteenth Century

The French Revolutionary period is often ascribed a pivotal role in the growing ambition and power of the central state to control, monitor and restrict geographical mobility. Identification and registration of both citizens and non-nationals became a core activity of the emerging nation state in the long nineteenth century, fostering a proliferation in population registers and identification documents. Yet to identify, track and register the movements of people and to organize the handling of identification documents, nation states had to rely on the co-operation of local – especially urban – authorities. These urban authorities in turn had a long tradition in efforts to regulate and control migration in and out of the community, from relying on marks of social status or personal recommendations to employing travel or identity documents, in order to restrict both the emigration of ‘useful’ citizens and the immigration of ‘undesirable’ newcomers.

The role of local know-how, experience and discretion is often neglected in existing research on nineteenth-century migration policies, as are the uses of identification papers by the migrants themselves. This session aims to explore how the increased use of state-backed identity documents in the long nineteenth century altered the relations between cities and their newcomers, focussing on the uses of these documents by migrants themselves. Contributors to this session are invited to reflect on these issues by dealing with one or more of the following questions:
1) Which kinds of identity documents (domestic and international passports, birth and marriage certificates, residence and work permits, relief certificates, etcetera) did migrants carry with them when moving to cities? Why and how did they use these specific documents? Which differences existed according to age, gender, social position, time and place?
2) How protective or repressive was the effect and use of these identification documents for the migrants involved? Identity documents could sometimes function as a tool for emancipation and protection, providing migrants with an identity outside their social community, protecting them against harassment or proving their entitlement to support, yet they could also be used to limit the holders’ freedom of movement and as a measure of repression and control, as in the case of livrets d’ouvrier.
3) Did requirements and policies with regard to newcomers’ identification documents differ between urban communities, and why?

Keywords: Passports; Nineteenth Century; Local Authorities

Period: 19th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Hilde Greefs (Belgium) - University of Antwerp, Centre for Urban History
Anne Winter (Belgium) - Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Accepted papers:

Domestic passports as a means of demographic engineering
Sinan Dincer

Identity documents, identification and status: serfs and Jews in a Finnish border town of Vyborg in the first half of the 19th century
Piia Einonen

State control over movement: the implementation of passport regulations in nineteenth-century Brussels and Antwerp
Ellen Debackere

Travelling without risks? Itinerant entertainers in Brabant and their use of passports at the end of the eighteenth century
Vicky Vanruysseveldt

S10. Gateways of Disease. Public Health in European and Asian Port Cities at the Birth of the Modern world

Port cities served as the nexus of the emerging global world – world market and world networks – in the 19th and 20th century. As a consequence of this function, port cities were invariably prone to an increased risk of exposure, particularly to infectious diseases. Many of the dominant epidemic diseases, such as plague, cholera, typhoid and yellow fever, were imported via port cities which, in turn, accelerated disease diffusion in coastal areas and dependent hinterlands. The individual demographic regimes of large ports were moulded by similar factors and extending trading networks, together with high levels of in-migration, aggravated the latent exposure risks of the indigenous population to endemic and epidemic diseases. In European port cities, the dominance of merchant capital directly affected the contemporary response to public health issues and had a profound impact on the selection and implementation of specific strategies. On the one hand the need to confront health risks was initially apparent in port cities, on the other hand there was an unusually high dependency on charity and philanthropy, and a general absence of collective commitment to social welfare provision.

In Asia during the late 19th century port cities were a showcase for politics of colonial powers. This is especially true for East Asia where many treaty ports were brought into existence in this period. In these port cities public health was one of the most important political issues between colonial powers and Asian countries which tried to build a nation state. At the outbreak of epidemic diseases colonial powers took quarantine measures in treaty ports and discriminated often the indigenous population by measures against these diseases. It was a symbol of nation state building for Asian countries that they themselves took public health policy in the port cities. Thus as for public health port cities appeared as a political space. Many port cities can be conceived as archetype places where the origins of modern health conditions and modern public health strategies can be analysed. It is not surprising therefore that considerable interdisciplinary researches, drawing explicitly on work in medical, global, demographic, economic, political, social and urban history has been undertaken in recent years. The aim of the proposed session is to bring together a series of contributions covering the development of port cities in the late 19th and early 20th century – the period of “The Birth of The Modern World” (Christopher A. Bayly). It will analyse the selection and implementation of various public health strategies in different port cities in Europe and Asia, and examine the international relationship between overseas trade, urban development, and public health policy.

Keywords: Public Health; Europe; Asia; Port Cities

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Jörg Vögele (Germany) - Institut für Geschichte der Medizin; Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
Hideharu Umehara (Japan) - Institut für Geschichte der Medizin; Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf

Accepted papers:

Between imperial rivalries and cooperation: Epidemic diseases and health policies in the Arabo-Persian Gulf in the long 19th century
Guillemette Aline Crouzet

Malaria and the Dynamics of Urbanization: A Case Study of Malaria in Two Korean Ports, c.1880-c.1940
Jeongran Kim

Piraeus: a growth driver and import channel of infectious diseases in Greece, 1875-1914
Aikaterini Chatzikonstantinou, Lydia Sapounaki-Dracaki

Steamship to Rangoon and the Third Class Indian Migrant in the Indian Ocean Region in the late Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
Rajashree Mazumder

S11. The City as a “Factory Yard”

There have been many cases in European history – particularly during the period of industrialization – when a large industrial company with many thousands of employees was established in a hitherto unimportant town or even village: these include Essen (Krupp), Wilhelmshaven (shipyards), Ludwigshafen (BASF), and Vítkovice (Vítkovice ironworks). Such industrial plant had a revolutionary impact, transforming the local microcosm. Not only did the company provide jobs for the vast majority of people in the surrounding area; it also caused the immigration of thousands of workers. Most of these new migrants were directly employed in the plant, for others work opportunities emerged in the developing services sector or small-scale manufacturing. The process of modernization and urbanization was particularly rapid in towns of this type.

A similar process occurred in a later era, between the end of the 19th century and the mid-20th century, with large industrial companies playing a major role in stimulating the development of the towns where they were established. These included Peugeot (Sochaux), Michelin (Clermont-Ferrand), Baťa (Zlín), and Opel (Rüsselsheim).

The main aim of this session is to map and describe as comprehensively as possible how the establishment of a large company impacts upon the development of the urban environment. Our interest focuses primarily on the following issues:
- What problems were caused by the influx of thousands of workers from a different environment (often rural areas), with different patterns of behaviour? What problems accompanied their adaptation, and how was this adaptation accomplished (positive measures, repressive measures)?
- What impacts did the presence of the company have on the structure of local society? How did the various social groups interact? How did local social life change after the establishment of the company? How did relations between the company and the municipal authorities develop?
- What were the impacts of the company’s development on quality of life? Was there a prevalence of positive aspects (modern infrastructure, higher living standards than elsewhere in the region) or negative aspects (environmental damage, a paternalistic and authoritarian approach by the company, restricting the free expression of public opinion)?
- How did economic development affect the development of the society’s ethnic and religious structure, and what problems did this cause?
- How did the company influence public spaces in the town (names of streets, squares, new monuments and memorials etc.)? Did the company engage in a planned public relations strategy?
- How did the existence of the company change the perception of the town, both internally and externally (e.g. did the company become an integral part of local identity, stimulating civic pride and local patriotism)?
- How did (and do) economic crises affect the relations between the company and the municipal authorities?

Keywords: Town; Industrialization; Factory; Communal Politics; Social Interactions

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Pavel Kladiwa (Czech Republic) - University of Ostrava
Catherine Horel (France) - Université de Paris
Andrea Pokludová (Czech Republic) - University of Ostrava

Accepted papers:

A commuters’ homeland – factories and urban perception in fin-de-siècle Frankfurt am Main
Ayako Sakurai

The birth and death of the great industrial regions: how CUF changed Portugal
Gonçalo Antunes, Susana Brito

The factory city of interwar period as a gendered space: the case of Zlín, Czech Republic
Lucie Galcanova, Vackova Barbora

The otherness of industrial city. Orientalizing capitalism in 19th century press. Case of Lodz (Poland)
Agata Magdalena Zysiak

S12. Transformation of Peripheral Cities Into Capitals: Experience of the Ural-Caspian Region (XVIII-XXI Centuries)

The large Ural-Caspian Region which long time was the southeast frontier area of Russia and the USSR, gave remarkable examples of transformation of the peripheral cities to the capitals of autonomous regions and even the independent countries. Such is imperial history of Orenburg which of the small provincial city became the center of a large general governorship. Such is history of the Russian city of Ufa which became the capital of the national Republic of Bashkortostan. Such is post-crisis history of Chelyabinsk and Turgai which of the usual district cities became million-plus cities and the centers of separate provinces and regions. Such is a strange history of Yekaterinburg which declared itself the capital of Ural – the invented region which had no clear administrative-territorial borders and was not official united region in government opinion. Such is Akmolinsk's grandiose history - the city which as a result turned into Astana – the capital of independent Kazakhstan.

All these transformations occurred in the territory of the same macroregion having the ethnoconfessional and sociocultural features. Despite its crucial significance in the territorial management of the Russian Empire and its geographic and ethnographic richness, the Ural-Caspian Region (or Orenburgskii krai, which should perhaps be translated as the Great Orenburg, in opinion of professor K. Matsuzato, Japan) has not attracted sufficient scholarly interest. This situation appears even stranger if we compare the academic situation around this macro-region with the booming historical studies around the neighboring Volga-Ural region during the last decade

The session aims to delve into the mechanisms, technologies, features and peculiarities of transformation of urban space (including mental and image transformation) of peripheral cities of the Ural-Caspian Region which have experienced the Capital status in 18-21th cent.

We are seeking to discuss the state of the art of this field of study and its place in the extended subject of Urban History.

This session invites participants to consider the following problems:
- influence of cross-border reality on dynamics of urban space;
- role of the central and local authorities in the process of creation of the new capitals on the periphery;
- what elements and signs of capital urban space were created first in the former peripheral cities ? What signs of the periphery disappear most slowly?
- influence of the capital status on change of social, national and confessional composition in these cities, etc.

Keywords: Peripheral Cities; Capitals; Ural-Caspian Region

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Sergey Lyubichankovskiy (Russia) - Orenburg State Pedagogical University

Accepted papers:

«Vernyy - Alma-Ata - Almaty» - story of the transformation of colonial strengthening in the capital, and back to an ordinary city in the country
Saule Karibaevna Uderbaeva

Aktobe – from the military fortification to the center of Western Kazakhstan
Gulbanu Izbassarova

Astana and the Construction of National Identity in post-Soviet Kazakhstan
Nari Shelekpayev

Ekaterinburg - the capital of the Urals: the ideology of the Ural regionalism
Elena Kazakova-Apkarimova

History of Astana: memory or amnesia?!
Svetlana Ivanovna Kovalskaya

Orenburg: from "Fortified city" to the "City of labor glory"
Elena Godovova

S13. City Screens: The Co-evolution of International Film Festivals and (Creative?) Cities

This session aims to explore how periodical or recurrent cultural events as international film festivals affected and have been affected by the changing cultural, social and political environment of their hosting cities during the 20th Century. We are particularly interested in sketching out the complex development of co-evolutionary paths, where the city strongly influenced the festival’s identity, and vice-versa the cultural event played some role in shaping the values, spaces and activities of the city.

We aim at going beyond the assessment of the relationship between cinema and the city  proposed by Shiel & Fitzmaurice (2001) by narrowing the problem, leaving in the background the sociological issues related to the representation of cities in the cinema: here the cities are first of all the place where the screens of the festival are located. On the other hand, we aim at discussing the role a cultural event can play in the development of what some studies have called “creative cities”, testing the far-from-obvious heuristic usefulness of this definition for historical analysis (for a critical review of Florida 2004, see Pratt 2008 and Scott 2006 among others).

The oldest Venice Film Festival can be an example of what we mean: created in 1932 in fascist Italy to foster the tourist and cultural specialization of the economy of the city islands of Venice and the Lido, within the framework of a wider project for the development of a “Greater Venice”, after over seventy years and sixty-eight editions, it shows a very different but still peculiar relationship with the local environment that in its turn was changed by the depopulation of the city island and the prevalence of tourist activities. But what about the festivals of Cannes, Locarno and Karlovy Vary, which were born immediately after WW2 (1946) in very different urban and political contexts, as it was the case for Edinburgh (1947) and Berlin (1951) in Europe, and out of Europe for Melbourne (1951) and Toronto (1976)?

Obviously, this list is very far from being exhaustive and we welcome proposals on many other existing cases of international film festivals located in urban contexts. The focus of the session is indeed on the evolution of cosmopolitan cultural events that are deeply embedded into the culture and history of their hosting city, and on their impact on other layers of the local environment.

Keywords: Film Festivals; Creative Cities; Cultural Events; Urban Society

Period: 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Giovanni Favero (Italy) - Università Ca' Foscari Venezia
Anna Moretti (Italy) - Università Ca' Foscari Venezia

Accepted papers:

City branding through imported creativity: Golden Goose International Film Festival in Kars, Turkey
Zeynep Akture

Potentials versus actions Analyzing the Cinema Festival Palace in Venice urban transformation
Maria Alessandra Segantini

Searching for causes of network failure: the case of the Venice Film Festival and the local hospitality system
Anna Moretti

The International Film Festival and the city of Venice during the 20th century
Giovanni Favero

S14. Spatial Contention, Spatial Claims and the Making of Trans-Local Social Movements After 1989

With the last few years’ tumultuous events research on the relationship between the uses of urban space, radical movements and social change have been become more relevant than ever. Our contribution to this problematic stem from the history of how a wave of squatted spaces in North Western Europe in the 1980s relates to the emergence of a new radical left in the following period.

In the squatter’s many battles with authorities a new generation of seasoned activists and networks of mobilization was created. Our proposed session focuses on what happened when the tide turned in the early 1990s, and most of these self-governed spaces were being evicted or “normalized”. In this moment a new kind of left took shape in many European countries, drawing on collective experiences from the struggle for squatted housing but searching for new spaces to operate through.

Community struggle, third wave feminism, metropolitan environmentalism, the making of the alter-globalization movement and antifascist street based struggles in response to the rising threat of neo-fascism were some of the nodes around which this new autonomous movement was crafted. Our research has focused on the way in which a militant antifascist movement of Southern Scandinavia was forced to move away from the repertoires of contention developed in the struggles around the squatters’ scene, to instead make claims on certain spaces within the city as “free from Nazis” thus inventing a new form of spatial practice of politics.

We are looking for researchers working on other examples of in what ways the European radical left made spatial claims after the height of the squatter’s movement. Such a discussion might not only yield a more clear picture on this fleeting movement, but could also provide a starting point for theoretical insights on trans-local mobilization, the development of repertoires of contention, and space in radical politics.

Keywords: Space; Spatial Claims; Social Movements; Squatters; Radical Politics

Period: Contemporary
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Johan Pries (Sweden) - University of Lund
Andrés Brink Pinto (Sweden) - University of Lund

Accepted papers:

Movements of Contention in the Öresund region 1990-2008
Andrés Brink Pinto

Protest cycles and squatting practices: socio-spatial structures or activist agency?
Miguel A. Martínez

Squatted social centers as pillars of the social movements scene in Poland
Dominika Vergara Polanska, Grzegorz Piotrowski

The Politics of Possibility: Networking Acts of Citizenship in Italy
Cristina Simona Bangau

Movements of Contention in the Öresund region, 1990-2008
Johan Pries

S15. The Politics of Urban Heritage in the Mediterranean under Colonial Rule

Urban heritage, whether explored by historians, policy makers, heritage practitioners or others, has mainly been studied as a concept of colonial policy. It has been transplanted from metropolis to colony, from center to periphery, and has materialized in the absence of local governmental or popularly-driven movements or theoretical approaches. Many European officials, engineers, and architects conceptualized, postulated, and formulated their ideas for how to re-design, and in some instances, preserve urban environments in colonial settings before even setting foot outside the homeland. Others developed their conceptions after considerable experience of local circumstances and practices. However, little attention has been paid to the local aspects of heritage making or remodeling under colonial rule. We know very little about local reaction to foreign-developed, colonial-conceived policies for how cities and their monuments, objects, arts, and cityscapes should be preserved, appropriated, redesigned, rethought, reconfigured, and reused.

This panel is concerned with local reactions to colonial urban heritage policies and projects, namely British, Italian and French, in the 19th and 20th centuries, in the southern and eastern Mediterranean. How did indigenous groups, whether Waqf/Habous officials or administrators, local councils, literary or journalistic voices, or others, react to, rework, translate, subvert, deviate from, undermine, or partake in, colonial projects that sought to, or in fact did, demolish, destroy,  and,  ultimately alter, local urban heritage in the name of colonial modernity? How have the colonized viewed changes in their urban fabric from Morocco to Iraq and what are the means by which they have chosen to express themselves? The panel aims to focus on local voices which have been muted amidst the cacophony of the colonial drumbeat toward progress and modernity.

Keywords: Urban; Heritage; Mediterranean; Colonial; Local Groups; Waqf/Habous; Progress; Modernity

Period: 19th Century - 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session co-organizer(s) and co-discussant(s):
Kimberly Katz (USA) - Towson University
Mercedes Volait (France) - CNRS

Accepted papers:

“Pacification” and “Patrimonialisation:” Historic Preservation, Urbanism and Violence in Palmyra
Heghnar Watenpaugh

La resistance au projet de la nouvelle ville de Bizerte
Nesrine Azizi

Planning Palestine: The British plans and their acceptance
Noah Esther Rubin

Visions of City Security: Residents Requests for Street Lighting in French Colonial Fez, Morocco (1920s-50s)
Colette Apelian

S16. When UNESCO Comes to Town: World Heritage Cities in Historical Perspectives

Around 200 cities have been awarded the prestigious World Heritage label by UNESCO since the signing of the World Heritage Convention in 1972.  Over the past decades the popularity and importance of the World Heritage concept has increased substantially – it has become a pronounced means for cities for economic and urban regeneration, for conferring distinctive identities, and for distinguishing themselves vis-à-vis other cities in the global competition. Due to this continuously increasing significance and visibility, and the high political, cultural, economic and social role played by heritage in late-modern societies, the relationship of cities and World Heritage deserves a closer look. UNESCO, through its ‘best practices’ and the standardized language it uses, acts as a unifying force in relation to heritage sites worldwide. Nevertheless, the cities inscribed as World Heritage are located in diverse historical, political, social, economic and cultural contexts and have their own distinct trajectories before (and after) UNESCO.

This session sets out to explore cities as World Heritage in a comparative historical perspective by discussing them before UNESCO and after. Most of the research on UNESCO World Heritage has focused so far on the life after gaining the status with less reflection on wider historical perspectives. The aim of the session is to ‘historize’ the World Heritage phenomenon by looking at the relationship between the established local practices and ideas and the universal conceptualizations by UNESCO. To this end the session invites papers focusing on two questions in particular: firstly, in what ways have the differential contexts and previous trajectories of World Heritage designated cities – as heritage sites, as tourist destinations, as residential areas, and as commercial districts –affected their different paths as World Heritage; and secondly, how the involvement of UNESCO and its advocacy of global history have influenced the public use of history and representations of urban past in cities inscribed as World Heritage.

In the same manner as UNESCO World Heritage seeks to be a global concept, we invite proposals from across the globe. Papers comparing two World Heritage cities are especially welcomed.

Keywords: Unesco; World Heritage Cities; Public Use of History; Preservation; Tourism

Period: 20th Century
Type: Specialist Session

Session organizer(s):
Tanja Vahtikari (Finland) - University of Tampere
Linda Kovářová (Czech Republic) - Charles University in Prague

Accepted papers:

A World Heritage of Nature, Mozart and Red Bull? Salzburg’s identity before and after 1996
Ewald Hiebl

Cidade Velha (Cape Verde) - The City in History and today, as World Heritage
Cláudia Beato

Evaluating the Urban Conservation Practice: a comparative case study
Katja Huovinen

Lessons from Mostar for Cities with World Heritage Aspirations in Bosnia and Kosovo
Emily Gunzburger Makas, Senada Demirovic Habibija

Two-way conversation: when UNESCO visited IPHAN
Silvana Barbosa Rubino

RT1. Urban Agency: Debating the Aims and Limits of Urban History

Notwithstanding the established nature of urban history, historians find it difficult to to define exactly the urban nature of major societal transformations. Traditionally urban historians are divided into two different schools. While some consider the city as a more or less neutral background of human behaviour - as the stage of human interaction and hence the focal point of interdisciplinary research -, others see the city as an agent of change. Thanks to its inherent structure, materiality, spatiality and concentration of people, the latter believe that the city has a key value (i.e., was an 'independent variable') in explaining processes of change. Hence, the question whether or not the city really matters remains unsolved. Do cities have an agency of their own or should all historical transformations ultimately be reduced to either proximity and materiality or the agency of actors and actor groups within (and indeed beyond) cities? Are not cities themselves the result of agency, in other words of immigration, entrepreneurial activity, capital, and the aspirations of political and intellectual elites? This problem is all the more urgent now because cities today are increasingly seen as either nodes in worldwide (global) networks of capital, labour and information, or as socio-technical realities in which non-human elements have agency as well. The issue of ‘urban agency’ is thus more relevant than ever.

In response to these issues, the aim of our Round Table is to question and discuss the issue of ‘urban agency'. Confronting perspectives from economic geography, urban sociology, urban ecology, and urban history, we will  debate the paradigms, approaches and assumptions which shape and influence urban history. In the process, the relationship of urban history with master narratives related to European modernity will be tackled. After all, not only is the history of urbanization and urbanity fundamentally intertwined with the master narrative of European modernity, but urban history as a discipline and set of approaches as well. As such, the connection of the European urban experience to either the growth of rationality and freedom or the capitalist mode of production and specific instantiations of class, division of labour, and alienation, will in this session be problematized. Nor will the recent turns (i.e., the cultural turn, the spatial turn, the material turn, etc.) be taken for granted. The ultimate aim, instead, is to radically historicize and contextualize urban history as a discipline and set of approaches and assumptions.

Keywords: Modernity; Governmentality; Actor Network Theory; Postcolonial Theories

Roundtable convened by:
Bert de Munck - Centre for Urban History, Antwerp
Simon Gunn - Centre for Urban History, Leicester

Michèle Dagenais - Département d’histoire, Université de Montréal

Dorothee Brantz - Center for Metropolitan Studies, TU Berlin
Bert De Munck - Centre for Urban History, University of Antwerp
Simon Gunn - Centre for Urban History, University of Leicester
Robert D. Lewis - Geography Department, University of Toronto
Chris Otter - Department of History, Ohio State University
William Rowe - Department of History, Johns Hopkins University

RT2. Student Perspectives on Urban History

The student round-table was first held at the previous EAUH conference in Prague, 2012. It targets students who are currently writing their M.A. theses and recent graduates who are about to start or have just begun their PhD programmes, as well as senior academics.

The session will provide insight into these two groups’ perspectives on urban history, allowing an exchange of ideas and experiences between beginning and more advanced urban historians. Students will have the chance to present their work-in-progress and receive feedback, while accomplished academics will have the opportunity to gain additional insight into recent trends in graduate-level urban history research in various countries.

In accordance with the conference theme, preference will be given to papers or discussion statements that stress international and interdisciplinary approaches. Contributions to the round-table usually draw on a specific case study such as a thesis or research project, but focus on discussing wider methodological aspects, for example:
- What is the value of urban history in a global urban world?
- What methods and approaches are most fruitful for doing urban historical research?
- What are the pitfalls of being (or becoming) an urban historian today?

The round-table will be co-organized by the EAUH and the International Students of History Association ( Founded in 1990, ISHA is an academic, non-profit organization of students of history and related sciences with members in more than twenty-five European countries. ISHA encourages international and interdisciplinary cooperation and also aims at expanding the dialogue between students and the rest of the scientific community.

Keywords: Theses; Methodology

Period: All Periods
Type: Round Table

Roundtable convened by::
Sven Mörsdorf (Austria) - International Students of History Association
Shane Ewen (United Kingdom) - Faculty of Arts, Environment & Technology, Leeds Metropolitan University

Hélène Antoni (Karlsruhe): The Emergence and Diffusion of German Town-planning at the End of the 19th Century: The Example of Strasbourg

Josef Kadeřábek and Zuzana Skořepová (České Budějovice): Town of Workers: Urban Development of Kladno between the 1950s and 1980s

Gonçalo Melo Silva (Lisbon): Studying Algarve Port Towns in the Late Middle Ages (1249-1521): Problems and Potentialities

Tereza Siglová (Pardubice): Credit and Indebtedness in Small Towns: The Case of the Pardubice Estate in the 16th and 17th Centuries

Álvaro Solano Fernández-Sordo (Oviedo): Society and Territory in the Medieval City: The Case of the County and Town of Maliayo (Asturias)

Lilla Zámbó (Budapest): Preservation History of Art Nouveau Heritage in European Cities

Final Round Table. Urban History: A New Research Agenda

The 12th International Conference on Urban History that takes place in Lisbon from September 3 through September 6 will host a series of discussions about the past and current scholarly discussions on themes related to urban history. In the aftermath of the publication of The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History by Professor Peter Clark, urban historians worldwide face a challenging future for the discipline, translated in the question: Urban History… What Next?

We asked a pool of experienced and internationally recognized urban historians to reflect upon the challenges that Urban History as a discipline faces in the near future. This roundtable will address some of those challenges and offer some points for reflection and interaction with the general audience, in search for a renewed academic and public agenda for Urban Studies worldwide. The general discussion will pivot around four main themes:

1.Urban History: the Challenges of a Discipline
a.Urbanism is a global phenomenon difficult to apprehend intellectually. In this respect, bridges need to be built between local/regional views of cities and international interconnected urban networks and histories
b.Is comparative urban history the way to go forward? Is it useful? Is there the need to develop comparative models to achieve an understanding of urban typologies?
c.Should comparative urban history have an endogenous or exogenous nature? Should we compare cities or should we compare urbanity with rurality?
d.Is it feasible to treat the study of cities in isolation? Cities develop within specific contexts across time and space.
e.How does urban history contribute to answer broad and deep questions regarding socio-economic and  cultural change?
f.Do we need global urban history as a discipline? If so, where to go from here?
g.When we compare, what do we compare exactly? What are the preferred sources and documental collections that better serve the purpose of comparison?

2.Urban History and the Interdisciplinary Dream
a.Most urban historians agree that interdisciplinary work is key to develop their field. However, few are fearless to face the challenge. How can we move towards guidelines to improve the odds of the ones attempting interdisciplinarity?
b.How can we bring closer urban history and urban planning history in terms of scholarship, networks, journals, graduate programs?
c.Who should be our partners in interdisciplinary exchanges? To what end?
d.Can we grow out of the typical interdisciplinary box history/archeology, architecture/urbanism or sociology/geography? Why not look outside the social sciences to the natural and exact sciences to move forward?

3.Urban History: a Theme for Classrooms
a.It is unclear how many urban historians exist worldwide, however, there are many historians teaching urban themes at undergraduate and graduate level. How do urban history programs fair when compared to other similar programs?
b.Is the future of urban history teaching in closer collaboration with inter-sectorial partners outside of the academic world? (museums, cultural foundations, public institutions, private corporations, research agencies)
c.When teaching urban history, should we be aware that we are preparing individuals to a labor market that requires a differentiated set of skills that urban history may provide? Specific sectors like crises management, health emergency services, small- and medium-size companies, public services and policy makers (just to mention a few) may have a positive input from skilled urban historians

4.Urban History and the Wider World
a. Even if urban history has developed organically, an interdisciplinary future will demand a systematization of research questions, hybrid methodologies, theoretical frameworks and societal outputs to respond to the challenges imposed to the discipline by universities and granting institutions.
With some of these points in mind, we invite all the participants in the 12th International Conference on Urban History to join the discussion and help design a future for the discipline of urban history. Together we will be better equipped to face the challenges of the 21st century.

Catia Antunes (Associate Professor, Economic and Social History, Leiden University)

Guest Participants:
Prof Wim Blockmans (Medieval History, Emeritus Leiden University)
Prof Denis Menjot (Urban Medieval History, Lyon 2)
Prof Lynn Hollen Lees (History, UPENN)
Prof Manon van der Heijden (Comparative Urban History, Leiden University)
Dr Andrea Caracausi (Assistant Professor, Early Modern Economic and Social History, University of Padua)

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